# Backporting process¶

## Backport Criteria¶

Committers may nominate PRs that have been merged into master as candidates for backport into stable releases if they affect the stable production usage of community users.

### Backport Criteria for Current Minor Release¶

Criteria for inclusion into the next stable release of the current latest minor version of Cilium, for example in a v1.2.z release prior to the release of version v1.3.0:

• All bugfixes
• Debug tool improvements

### Backport Criteria for X.Y-1.Z and X.Y-2.Z¶

Criteria for the inclusion into the next stable release of the prior two minor versions of Cilium, for example in a v1.0.z or v1.1.z release prior to the release of version v1.3.0:

• Security relevant fixes
• Major bugfixes relevant to the correct operation of Cilium
• Debug tool improvements

### Backport Criteria for documentation changes¶

Changes to Cilium’s documentation should generally be subject to backports for all supported branches to which they apply (all supported branches containing the parent features to which the modified sections relate).

The motivation is that users can then simply look at the branch of the documentation related to the version they are deploying, and find the latest correct instructions for their version.

### Proposing PRs for backporting¶

PRs are proposed for backporting by adding a needs-backport/X.Y label to them. Normally this is done by the author when the PR is created or one of the maintainers when the PR is reviewed. When proposing PRs that have already been merged, also add a comment to the PR to ensure that the backporters are notified.

## Backporting Guide for the Backporter¶

Cilium PRs that are marked with the label needs-backport/X.Y need to be backported to the stable branch X.Y. The following steps summarize the process for backporting these PRs:

• One-time setup
• Preparing PRs for backport
• Cherry-picking commits into a backport branch
• Posting the PR and updating GitHub labels

### One-time Setup¶

1. Make sure you have a GitHub developer access token with the public_repos workflow scopes available. You can do this directly from https://github.com/settings/tokens or by opening GitHub and then navigating to: User Profile -> Settings -> Developer Settings -> Personal access token -> Generate new token.

2. The scripts referred to below need to be run on Linux, they do not work on macOS. It is recommended to create a container using (contrib/backporting/Dockerfile), as it will have all the correct versions of dependencies / libraries.

$export GITHUB_TOKEN=<YOUR_GITHUB_TOKEN>$ docker build -t cilium-backport contrib/backporting/.

$docker run -e GITHUB_TOKEN -v$(pwd):/cilium -v "$HOME/.ssh":/home/user/.ssh \ -it cilium-backport /bin/bash  Note If you are running on a mac OS, and see /home/user/.ssh/config: line 3: Bad configuration option: usekeychain error message while running any of the backporting scripts, comment out the line UseKeychain yes. 3. Once you have a setup ready, you need to configure git to have your name and email address to be used in the commit messages: $ git config --global user.name "John Doe"
$git config --global user.email johndoe@example.com  4. Add remotes for the Cilium upstream repository and your Cilium repository fork. $ git remote add johndoe git@github.com:johndoe/cilium.git
$git remote add upstream https://github.com/cilium/cilium.git  5. Skip this step if you have created a setup using the pre-defined Dockerfile. This guide makes use of several tools to automate the backporting process. The basics require bash and git, but to automate interactions with github, further tools are required. Dependency Required? Download Command bash Yes N/A (OS-specific) git Yes N/A (OS-specific) jq Yes N/A (OS-specific) python3 Yes Python Downloads PyGithub Yes pip3 install PyGithub Github hub CLI (>= 2.8.3) Yes N/A (OS-specific) Verify your machine is correctly configured by running $ go run ./tools/dev-doctor --backporting


### Preparation¶

Pull requests that are candidates for backports to the X.Y stable release are tracked through the following links:

Make sure that the Github labels are up-to-date, as this process will deal with all commits from PRs that have the needs-backport/X.Y label set (for a stable release version X.Y). If any PRs contain labels such as backport-pending/X.Y, ensure that the backport for that PR have been merged and if so, change the label to backport-done/X.Y.

### Creating the Backports Branch¶

1. Run contrib/backporting/start-backport for the release version that you intend to backport PRs for. This will pull the latest repository commits from the Cilium repository (assumed to be the git remote origin), create a new branch, and runs the contrib/backporting/check-stable script to fetch the full set of PRs to backport.

$GITHUB_TOKEN=xxx contrib/backporting/start-backport 1.0  Note This command will leave behind a file in the current directory with a name based upon the release version and the current date in the form vRELEASE-backport-YYYY-MM-DD.txt which contains a prepared backport pull-request description so you don’t need to write one yourself. 2. Cherry-pick the commits using the master git SHAs listed, starting from the oldest (top), working your way down and fixing any merge conflicts as they appear. Note that for PRs that have multiple commits you will want to check that you are cherry-picking oldest commits first. The cherry-pick script accepts multiple arguments, in which case it will attempt to apply each commit in the order specified on the command line until one cherry pick fails or every commit is cherry-picked. $ contrib/backporting/cherry-pick <oldest-commit-sha>
...
$contrib/backporting/cherry-pick <newest-commit-sha>  Conflicts may be resolved by applying changes or backporting other PRs to completely avoid conflicts. Backporting entire PRs is preferred if the changes in the dependent PRs are small. This stackoverflow.com question describes how to determine the original PR corresponding to a particular commit SHA in the GitHub UI. If a conflict is resolved by modifying a commit during backport, describe the changes made in the commit message and collect these to add to the backport PR description when creating the PR below. This helps to direct backport reviewers towards which changes may deviate from the original commits to ensure that the changes are correctly backported. 3. (Optional) If there are any commits or pull requests that are tricky or time-consuming to backport, consider reaching out for help on Slack. If the commit does not cherry-pick cleanly, please mention the necessary changes in the pull request description in the next section. ### Creating the Backport Pull Request¶ The backport pull-request may be created via CLI tools, or alternatively you can use the GitHub web interface to achieve these steps. #### Via GitHub Web Interface¶ 1. Push your backports branch to your fork of the Cilium repo. $ git push -u <remote_for_your_fork> HEAD

2. Create a new PR from your branch towards the feature branch you are backporting to. Note that by default Github creates PRs against the master branch, so you will need to change it. The title and description for the pull request should be based upon the vRELEASE-backport-YYYY-MM-DD.txt file that was generated by the scripts above.

Note

The vRELEASE-backport-YYYY-MM-DD.txt file will include:

Once this PR is merged, you can update the PR labels via:
upstream-prs
$for pr in AAA BBB ; do contrib/backporting/set-labels.py$pr done VVV; done



The upstream-prs tag is required, so add it if you manually write the message.

3. Label the new backport PR with the backport label for the stable branch such as backport/X.Y as well as kind/backports so that it is easy to find backport PRs later.

4. Mark all PRs you backported with the backport pending label backport-pending/X.Y and clear the needs-backport/X.Y label. This can be done with the command printed out at the bottom of the output from the start-backport script above (GITHUB_TOKEN needs to be set for this to work).

### Running the CI Against the Pull Request¶

To validate a cross-section of various tests against the PRs, backport PRs should be validated in the CI by running all CI targets. This can be triggered by adding a comment to the PR with exactly the text test-backport-x.x, where x.x is the target version. The comment must not contain any other characters.

### After the Backports are Merged¶

After the backport PR is merged, if the person who merged the PR didn’t take care of it already, mark all backported PRs with backport-done/X.Y label and clear the backport-pending/X.Y label(s). If the backport pull request description was generated using the scripts above, then the full command is listed in the pull request description.

$GITHUB_TOKEN=xxx for pr in 12589 12568; do contrib/backporting/set-labels.py$pr done 1.8; done


## Backporting Guide for Others¶

### Original Committers and Reviewers¶

Committers should mark PRs needing backport as needs-backport/X.Y, based on the backport criteria. It is up to the reviewers to confirm that the backport request is reasonable and, if not, raise concerns on the PR as comments.

At some point, changes will be picked up on a backport PR and the committer will be notified and asked to approve the backport commits. Confirm that:

1. All the commits from the original PR have been indeed backported.
2. In case of conflicts, the resulting changes look good.

### Merger¶

When merging a backport PR, set the labels of the backported PRs to done. Typically, backport PRs include a line on how do that. E.g.,:

$GITHUB_TOKEN=xxx for pr in 12894 12621 12973 12977 12952; do contrib/backporting/set-labels.py$pr done 1.8; done