# Hubble internals¶

Note

This documentation section is targeted at developers who are interested in contributing to Hubble. For this purpose, it describes Hubble internals.

Note

This documentation covers the Hubble server (sometimes referred as “Hubble embedded”) and Hubble Relay components but does not cover the Hubble UI and CLI.

Hubble builds on top of Cilium and eBPF to enable deep visibility into the communication and behavior of services as well as the networking infrastructure in a completely transparent manner. One of the design goals of Hubble is to achieve all of this at large scale.

Hubble’s server component is embedded into the Cilium agent in order to achieve high performance with low-overhead. The gRPC services offered by Hubble server may be consumed locally via a Unix domain socket or, more typically, through Hubble Relay. Hubble Relay is a standalone component which is aware of all Hubble instances and offers full cluster visibility by connecting to their respective gRPC APIs. This capability is usually referred to as multi-node. Hubble Relay’s main goal is to offer a rich API that can be safely exposed and consumed by the Hubble UI and CLI.

Note

This guide does not cover Hubble in standalone mode, which is deprecated with the release of Cilium v1.8.

## Hubble Architecture¶

Hubble exposes gRPC services from the Cilium process that allows clients to receive flows and other type of data.

### Hubble server¶

The Hubble server component implements two gRPC services. The Observer service which may optionally be exposed via a TCP socket in addition to a local Unix domain socket and the Peer service, which is only served on a local Unix domain socket.

#### The Observer service¶

The Observer service is the principal service. It provides three RPC endpoints: GetFlows, GetNodes and ServerStatus. While ServerStatus and GetNodes endpoints are pretty straightforward (they provides metrics and other information related to the running instance(s)), GetFlows is far more sophisticated and the more important one.

Using GetFlows, callers get a stream of payloads. Request parameters allow callers to specify filters in the form of blacklists and whitelists to allow for fine-grained filtering of data.

In order to answer GetFlows requests, Hubble stores monitoring events from Cilium’s event monitor into a user-space ring buffer structure. Monitoring events are obtained by registering a new listener on Cilium monitor. The ring buffer is capable of storing a configurable amount of events in memory. Events are continuously consumed, overriding older ones once the ring buffer is full.

For efficiency, the internal buffer length is a bit mask of ones + 1. The most significant bit of this bit mask is the same position of the most significant bit position of ‘n’. In other terms, the internal buffer size is always a power of 2 with 1 slot reserved for the writer. In effect, from a user perspective, the ring buffer capacity is one less than a power of 2. As the ring buffer is a hot code path, it has been designed to not employ any locking mechanisms and uses atomic operations instead. While this approach has performance benefits, it also has the downsides of being a complex component.

Due to its complex nature, the ring buffer is typically accessed via a ring reader that abstracts the complexity of this data structure for reading. The ring reader allows reading one event at the time with ‘previous’ and ‘next’ methods but also implements a follow mode where events are continuously read as they are written to the ring buffer.

#### The Peer service¶

The Peer service sends information about Hubble peers in the cluster in a stream. When the Notify method is called, it reports information about all the peers in the cluster and subsequently sends information about peers that are updated, added or removed from the cluster. Thus, it allows the caller to keep track of all Hubble instances and query their respective gRPC services.

This service is typically only exposed on a local Unix domain socket and is primarily used by Hubble Relay in order to have a cluster-wide view of all Hubble instances.

The Peer service obtains peer change notifications by subscribing to Cilium’s node manager. To this end, it internally defines a handler that implements Cilium’s datapath node handler interface.

### Hubble Relay¶

Hubble Relay is the Hubble component that brings multi-node support. It leverages the Peer service to obtain information about Hubble instances and consume their gRPC API in order to provide a more rich API that covers events from across the entire cluster (or even multiple clusters in a ClusterMesh scenario).

Hubble Relay was first introduced as a technology preview with the release of Cilium v1.8. It is declared stable with the release of Cilium v1.9.

Hubble Relay implements the Observer service for multi-node. To that end, it maintains a persistent connection with every Hubble peer in a cluster with a peer manager. This component provides callers with the list of peers. Callers may report when a peer is unreachable, in which case the peer manager will attempt to reconnect.

As Hubble Relay connects to every node in a cluster, the Hubble server instances must make their API available (by default on port 4244). By default, Hubble server endpoints are secured using mutual TLS (mTLS) when exposed on a TCP port in order to limit access to Hubble Relay only.