Developer / Contributor Guide

We’re happy you’re interested in contributing to the Cilium project.

This guide will help you make sure you have an environment capable of testing changes to the Cilium source code, and that you understand the workflow of getting these changes reviewed and merged upstream.

Setting up the development environment


You need to have the following tools available in order to effectively contribute to Cilium:

Dependency Version / Commit ID Download Command
git latest N/A (OS-specific)
glibc-devel (32-bit) latest N/A (OS-specific)
go 1.12.17 N/A (OS-specific)
dep >= v0.4.1 curl | sh
go-bindata a0ff2567cfb go get -u
ginkgo >= 1.4.0 go get -u
gomega >= 1.2.0 go get -u
ineffassign >= 1003c8b go get -u
Docker OS-Dependent N/A (OS-specific)
Docker-Compose OS-Dependent N/A (OS-specific)

To run Cilium locally on VMs, you need:

Dependency Version / Commit ID Download Command
Vagrant >= 2.0 Vagrant Install Instructions
VirtualBox (if not using libvirt) >= 5.2 N/A (OS-specific)

Finally, in order to build the documentation, you should have Sphinx installed:

$ sudo pip install sphinx

You should start with the Getting Started Guides, which walks you through the set-up, such as installing Vagrant, getting the Cilium sources, and going through some Cilium basics.

Vagrant Setup

While the Getting Started Guides uses a Vagrantfile tuned for the basic walk through, the setup for the Vagrantfile in the root of the Cilium tree depends on a number of environment variables and network setup that are managed via contrib/vagrant/

Using the provided Vagrantfile

To bring up a Vagrant VM with Cilium plus dependencies installed, run:

$ contrib/vagrant/

This will create and run a vagrant VM based on the base box cilium/ubuntu. The box is currently available for the following providers:

  • virtualbox


The following environment variables can be set to customize the VMs brought up by vagrant:

  • NWORKERS=n: Number of child nodes you want to start with the master, default 0.
  • RELOAD=1: Issue a vagrant reload instead of vagrant up, useful to resume halted VMs.
  • NFS=1: Use NFS for vagrant shared directories instead of rsync.
  • K8S=1: Build & install kubernetes on the nodes. k8s1 is the master node, which contains both master components: etcd, kube-controller-manager, kube-scheduler, kube-apiserver, and node components: kubelet, kube-proxy, kubectl and Cilium. When used in combination with NWORKERS=1 a second node is created, where k8s2 will be a kubernetes node, which contains: kubelet, kube-proxy, kubectl and cilium.
  • IPV4=1: Run Cilium with IPv4 enabled.
  • RUNTIME=x: Sets up the container runtime to be used inside a kubernetes cluster. Valid options are: docker, containerd and crio. If not set, it defaults to docker.
  • VAGRANT_DEFAULT_PROVIDER={virtualbox \| libvirt \| ...}
  • VM_SET_PROXY= Sets up VM’s https_proxy.

If you want to start the VM with cilium enabled with containerd, with kubernetes installed and plus a worker, run:

$ RUNTIME=containerd K8S=1 NWORKERS=1 contrib/vagrant/

If you want to get VM status, run:

$ RUNTIME=containerd K8S=1 NWORKERS=1 vagrant status

If you want to connect to the Kubernetes cluster running inside the developer VM via kubectl from your host machine, set KUBECONFIG environment variable to include new kubeconfig file:


and add k8s1 to your hosts file.

If you have any issue with the provided vagrant box cilium/ubuntu or need a different box format, you may build the box yourself using the packer scripts

Manual Installation

Alternatively you can import the vagrant box cilium/ubuntu directly and manually install Cilium:

$ vagrant init cilium/ubuntu
$ vagrant up
$ vagrant ssh [...]
$ cd go/src/
$ make
$ sudo make install
$ sudo mkdir -p /etc/sysconfig/
$ sudo cp contrib/systemd/cilium.service /etc/systemd/system/
$ sudo cp contrib/systemd/cilium  /etc/sysconfig/cilium
$ sudo usermod -a -G cilium vagrant
$ sudo systemctl enable cilium
$ sudo systemctl restart cilium


Your Cilium tree is mapped to the VM so that you do not need to keep manually copying files between your host and the VM. Folders are by default synced automatically using VirtualBox Shared Folders . You can also use NFS to access your Cilium tree from the VM by setting the environment variable NFS (mentioned above) before running the startup script (export NFS=1). Note that your host firewall must have a variety of ports open. The Vagrantfile will inform you of the configuration of these addresses and ports to enable NFS.


OSX file system is by default case insensitive, which can confuse git. At the writing of this Cilium repo has no file names that would be considered referring to the same file on a case insensitive file system. Regardless, it may be useful to create a disk image with a case sensitive file system for holding your git repos.


VirtualBox for OSX currently (version 5.1.22) always reports host-only networks’ prefix length as 64. Cilium needs this prefix to be 16, and the startup script will check for this. This check always fails when using VirtualBox on OSX, but it is safe to let the startup script to reset the prefix length to 16.

If for some reason, running of the provisioning script fails, you should bring the VM down before trying again:

$ vagrant halt


As part of Cilium development, we use a custom base box with a bunch of pre-installed libraries and tools that we need to enhance our daily workflow. That base box is built with Packer and it is hosted in the packer-ci-build GitHub repository.

New versions of this box can be created via Jenkins Packer Build, where new builds of the image will be pushed to Vagrant Cloud . The version of the image corresponds to the BUILD_ID environment variable in the Jenkins job. That version ID will be used in Cilium Vagrantfiles.

Changes to this image are made via contributions to the packer-ci-build repository. Authorized GitHub users can trigger builds with a GitHub comment on the PR containing the trigger phrase build-me-please. In case that a new box needs to be rebased with a different branch than master, authorized developers can run the build with custom parameters. To use a different Cilium branch in the job go to Build with parameters and a base branch can be set as the user needs.

This box will need to be updated when a new developer needs a new dependency that is not installed in the current version of the box, or if a dependency that is cached within the box becomes stale.

Make sure that you update vagrant box versions in test Vagrantfile and root Vagrantfile after new box is built and tested.

Development process

Local Development in Vagrant Box

See Setting up the development environment for information on how to setup the development environment.

When the development VM is provisioned, it builds and installs Cilium. After the initial build and install you can do further building and testing incrementally inside the VM. vagrant ssh takes you to the Cilium source tree directory (/home/vagrant/go/src/ by default, and the following commands assume that you are working within that directory.

Build Cilium

Assuming you have synced (rsync) the source tree after you have made changes, or the tree is automatically in sync via NFS or guest additions folder sharing, you can issue a build as follows:

$ make

Install to dev environment

After a successful build and test you can re-install Cilium by:

$ sudo -E make install

Restart Cilium service

To run the newly installed version of Cilium, restart the service:

$ sudo systemctl restart cilium

You can verify the service and cilium-agent status by the following commands, respectively:

$ sudo systemctl status cilium
$ cilium status

Making Changes

  1. Create a topic branch: git checkout -b myBranch master
  2. Make the changes you want
  3. Separate the changes into logical commits.
    1. Describe the changes in the commit messages. Focus on answering the question why the change is required and document anything that might be unexpected.
    2. If any description is required to understand your code changes, then those instructions should be code comments instead of statements in the commit description.
  4. Make sure your changes meet the following criteria:
    1. New code is covered by Unit Testing.
    2. End to end integration / runtime tests have been extended or added. If not required, mention in the commit message what existing test covers the new code.
    3. Follow-up commits are squashed together nicely. Commits should separate logical chunks of code and not represent a chronological list of changes.
  5. Run git diff --check to catch obvious white space violations
  6. Run make to build your changes. This will also run go fmt and error out on any golang formatting errors.
  7. See Unit Testing on how to run unit tests.
  8. See End-To-End Testing Framework for information how to run the end to end integration tests

Unit Testing

Cilium uses the standard go test framework in combination with gocheck for richer testing functionality.


Some tests interact with the kvstore and depend on a local kvstore instances of both etcd and consul. To start the local instances, run:

$ make start-kvstores

Running all tests

To run unit tests over the entire repository, run the following command in the project root directory:

$ make unit-tests

Testing individual packages

It is possible to test individual packages by invoking go test directly. You can then cd into the package subject to testing and invoke go test:

$ cd pkg/kvstore
$ go test

If you need more verbose output, you can pass in the -check.v and -check.vv arguments:

$ cd pkg/kvstore
$ go test -check.v -check.vv

If the unit tests have some prerequisites like Prerequisites, you can use the following command to automatically set up the prerequisites, run the unit tests and tear down the prerequisites:

$ make unit-tests

Running individual tests

Due to the use of gocheck, the standard go test -run will not work, instead, the -check.f argument has to be specified:

$ go test -check.f TestParallelAllocation

Automatically run unit tests on code changes

The script contrib/shell/ contains some helpful bash functions to improve the feedback cycle between writing tests and seeing their results. If you’re writing unit tests in a particular package, the watchtest function will watch for changes in a directory and run the unit tests for that package any time the files change. For example, if writing unit tests in pkg/policy, run this in a terminal next to your editor:

$ . contrib/shell/
$ watchtest pkg/policy

This shell script depends on the inotify-tools package on Linux.

Add/update a golang dependency

Once you have downloaded dep make sure you have version >= 0.4.1

$ dep version
 version     : v0.4.1
 build date  : 2018-01-24
 git hash    : 37d9ea0a
 go version  : go1.9.1
 go compiler : gc
 platform    : linux/amd64

After that, you can edit the Gopkg.toml file, add the library that you want to add. Lets assume we want to add version v0.5.2:

  name = ""
  revision = "v0.5.2"

Once you add the libraries that you need you can save the file and run

$ dep ensure -v

For a first run, it can take a while as it will download all dependencies to your local cache but the remaining runs will be faster.


Datapath code

The tool cilium monitor can also be used to retrieve debugging information from the BPF based datapath. Debugging messages are sent if either the cilium-agent itself or the respective endpoint is in debug mode. The debug mode of the agent can be enabled by starting cilium-agent with the option --debug enabled or by running cilium config debug=true for an already running agent. Debugging of an individual endpoint can be enabled by running cilium endpoint config ID debug=true

$ cilium endpoint config 3978 debug=true
Endpoint 3978 configuration updated successfully
$ cilium monitor -v --hex
Listening for events on 2 CPUs with 64x4096 of shared memory
Press Ctrl-C to quit
CPU 00: MARK 0x1c56d86c FROM 3978 DEBUG: 70 bytes Incoming packet from container ifindex 85
00000000  33 33 00 00 00 02 ae 45  75 73 11 04 86 dd 60 00  |33.....Eus....`.|
00000010  00 00 00 10 3a ff fe 80  00 00 00 00 00 00 ac 45  |....:..........E|
00000020  75 ff fe 73 11 04 ff 02  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |u..s............|
00000030  00 00 00 00 00 02 85 00  15 b4 00 00 00 00 01 01  |................|
00000040  ae 45 75 73 11 04 00 00  00 00 00 00              |.Eus........|
CPU 00: MARK 0x1c56d86c FROM 3978 DEBUG: Handling ICMPv6 type=133
CPU 00: MARK 0x1c56d86c FROM 3978 Packet dropped 131 (Invalid destination mac) 70 bytes ifindex=0 284->0
00000000  33 33 00 00 00 02 ae 45  75 73 11 04 86 dd 60 00  |33.....Eus....`.|
00000010  00 00 00 10 3a ff fe 80  00 00 00 00 00 00 ac 45  |....:..........E|
00000020  75 ff fe 73 11 04 ff 02  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |u..s............|
00000030  00 00 00 00 00 02 85 00  15 b4 00 00 00 00 01 01  |................|
00000040  00 00 00 00                                       |....|
CPU 00: MARK 0x7dc2b704 FROM 3978 DEBUG: 86 bytes Incoming packet from container ifindex 85
00000000  33 33 ff 00 8a d6 ae 45  75 73 11 04 86 dd 60 00  |33.....Eus....`.|
00000010  00 00 00 20 3a ff fe 80  00 00 00 00 00 00 ac 45  |... :..........E|
00000020  75 ff fe 73 11 04 ff 02  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |u..s............|
00000030  00 01 ff 00 8a d6 87 00  20 40 00 00 00 00 fd 02  |........ @......|
00000040  00 00 00 00 00 00 c0 a8  21 0b 00 00 8a d6 01 01  |........!.......|
00000050  ae 45 75 73 11 04 00 00  00 00 00 00              |.Eus........|
CPU 00: MARK 0x7dc2b704 FROM 3978 DEBUG: Handling ICMPv6 type=135
CPU 00: MARK 0x7dc2b704 FROM 3978 DEBUG: ICMPv6 neighbour soliciation for address b21a8c0:d68a0000

One of the most common issues when developing datapath code is that the BPF code cannot be loaded into the kernel. This frequently manifests as the endpoints appearing in the “not-ready” state and never switching out of it:

$ cilium endpoint list
ENDPOINT   POLICY        IDENTITY   LABELS (source:key[=value])   IPv6                     IPv4            STATUS
48896      Disabled      266        container:id.server           fd02::c0a8:210b:0:bf00     not-ready
60670      Disabled      267        container:id.client           fd02::c0a8:210b:0:ecfe   not-ready

Running cilium endpoint get for one of the endpoints will provide a description of known state about it, which includes BPF verification logs.

The files under /var/run/cilium/state provide context about how the BPF datapath is managed and set up. The .log files will describe the BPF requirements and features that Cilium detected and used to generate the BPF programs. The .h files describe specific configurations used for BPF program compilation. The numbered directories describe endpoint-specific state, including header configuration files and BPF binaries.

# for log in /var/run/cilium/state/*.log; do echo "cat $log"; cat $log; done
cat /var/run/cilium/state/bpf_features.log
BPF/probes: CONFIG_CGROUP_BPF=y is not in kernel configuration
BPF/probes: CONFIG_LWTUNNEL_BPF=y is not in kernel configuration
HAVE_LPM_MAP_TYPE: Your kernel doesn't support LPM trie maps for BPF, thus disabling CIDR policies. Recommendation is to run 4.11+ kernels.
HAVE_LRU_MAP_TYPE: Your kernel doesn't support LRU maps for BPF, thus switching back to using hash table for the cilium connection tracker. Recommendation is to run 4.10+ kernels.

Current BPF map state for particular programs is held under /sys/fs/bpf/, and the bpf-map utility can be useful for debugging what is going on inside them, for example:

# ls /sys/fs/bpf/tc/globals/
cilium_calls_15124  cilium_calls_48896        cilium_ct4_global       cilium_lb4_rr_seq       cilium_lb6_services  cilium_policy_25729  cilium_policy_60670       cilium_proxy6
cilium_calls_25729  cilium_calls_60670        cilium_ct6_global       cilium_lb4_services     cilium_lxc           cilium_policy_3978   cilium_policy_reserved_1  cilium_reserved_policy
cilium_calls_3978   cilium_calls_netdev_ns_1  cilium_events           cilium_lb6_reverse_nat  cilium_policy        cilium_policy_4314   cilium_policy_reserved_2  cilium_tunnel_map
cilium_calls_4314   cilium_calls_overlay_2    cilium_lb4_reverse_nat  cilium_lb6_rr_seq       cilium_policy_15124  cilium_policy_48896  cilium_proxy4
# bpf-map info /sys/fs/bpf/tc/globals/cilium_policy_15124
Type:           Hash
Key size:       8
Value size:     24
Max entries:    1024
Flags:          0x0
# bpf-map dump /sys/fs/bpf/tc/globals/cilium_policy_15124
00000000  6a 01 00 00 82 23 06 00                           |j....#..|
00000000  01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |................|
00000010  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00                           |........|

End-To-End Testing Framework


Cilium uses Ginkgo as a testing framework for writing end-to-end tests which test Cilium all the way from the API level (e.g. importing policies, CLI) to the datapath (i.e, whether policy that is imported is enforced accordingly in the datapath). The tests in the test directory are built on top of Ginkgo. Ginkgo provides a rich framework for developing tests alongside the benefits of Golang (compilation-time checks, types, etc.). To get accustomed to the basics of Ginkgo, we recommend reading the Ginkgo Getting-Started Guide , as well as running example tests to get a feel for the Ginkgo workflow.

These test scripts will invoke vagrant to create virtual machine(s) to run the tests. The tests make heavy use of the Ginkgo focus concept to determine which VMs are necessary to run particular tests. All test names must begin with one of the following prefixes:

  • Runtime: Test cilium in a runtime environment running on a single node.
  • K8s: Create a small multi-node kubernetes environment for testing features beyond a single host, and for testing kubernetes-specific features.
  • Nightly: sets up a multinode Kubernetes cluster to run scale, performance, and chaos testing for Cilium.

Running End-To-End Tests

Running All Tests

Running all of the Ginkgo tests may take an hour or longer. To run all the ginkgo tests, invoke the make command as follows from the root of the cilium repository:

$ sudo make -C test/

The first time that this is invoked, the testsuite will pull the testing VMs and provision Cilium into them. This may take several minutes, depending on your internet connection speed. Subsequent runs of the test will reuse the image.

Running Runtime Tests

To run all of the runtime tests, execute the following command from the test directory:

ginkgo --focus="Runtime*" -noColor

Ginkgo searches for all tests in all subdirectories that are “named” beginning with the string “Runtime” and contain any characters after it. For instance, here is an example showing what tests will be ran using Ginkgo’s dryRun option:

$ ginkgo --focus="Runtime*" -noColor -v -dryRun
Running Suite: runtime
Random Seed: 1516125117
Will run 42 of 164 specs
RuntimePolicyEnforcement Policy Enforcement Always
  Always to Never with policy
RuntimePolicyEnforcement Policy Enforcement Always
  Always to Never without policy
RuntimePolicyEnforcement Policy Enforcement Never
  Container creation
RuntimePolicyEnforcement Policy Enforcement Never
  Never to default with policy
Ran 42 of 164 Specs in 0.002 seconds
SUCCESS! -- 0 Passed | 0 Failed | 0 Pending | 122 Skipped PASS

Ginkgo ran 1 suite in 1.830262168s
Test Suite Passed

The output has been truncated. For more information about this functionality, consult the aforementioned Ginkgo documentation.

Running Kubernetes Tests

To run all of the Kubernetes tests, run the following command from the test directory:

ginkgo --focus="K8s*" -noColor

Similar to the Runtime test suite, Ginkgo searches for all tests in all subdirectories that are “named” beginning with the string “K8s” and contain any characters after it.

The Kubernetes tests support the following Kubernetes versions:

  • 1.8
  • 1.9
  • 1.10
  • 1.11
  • 1.12
  • 1.13
  • 1.14
  • 1.15

By default, the Vagrant VMs are provisioned with Kubernetes 1.13. To run with any other supported version of Kubernetes, run the test suite with the following format:

K8S_VERSION=<version> ginkgo --focus="K8s*" -noColor


When provisioning VMs with the net-next kernel (NETNEXT=true) on VirtualBox which version does not match a version of the VM image VirtualBox Guest Additions, Vagrant will install a new version of the Additions with mount.vboxsf. The latter is not compatible with vboxsf.ko shipped within the VM image, and thus syncing of shared folders will not work.

To avoid this, one can prevent Vagrant from installing the Additions by putting the following into $HOME/.vagrant.d/Vagrantfile:

Vagrant.configure('2') do |config|
  if Vagrant.has_plugin?("vagrant-vbguest") then
    config.vbguest.auto_update = false

  config.vm.provider :virtualbox do |vbox|
    vbox.check_guest_additions = false

Running Nightly Tests

To run all of the Nightly tests, run the following command from the test directory:

ginkgo --focus="Nightly*"  -noColor

Similar to the other test suites, Ginkgo searches for all tests in all subdirectories that are “named” beginning with the string “Nightly” and contain any characters after it. The default version of running Nightly test are 1.8, but can be changed using the environment variable K8S_VERSION.

Available CLI Options

For more advanced workflows, check the list of available custom options for the Cilium framework in the test/ directory and interact with ginkgo directly:

$ cd test/
$ ginkgo . -- --help | grep -A 1 cilium
  -cilium.SSHConfig string
        Specify a custom command to fetch SSH configuration (eg: 'vagrant ssh-config')
        On failure, hold the environment in its current state
        Provision Vagrant boxes and Cilium before running test (default true)
        Output which commands are ran to stdout
  -cilium.testScope string
        Specifies scope of test to be ran (k8s, Nightly, runtime)
$ ginkgo --focus "Policies*" -- --cilium.provision=false

For more information about other built-in options to Ginkgo, consult the Ginkgo documentation.

Running Specific Tests Within a Test Suite

If you want to run one specified test, there are a few options:

  • By modifying code: add the prefix “FIt” on the test you want to run; this marks the test as focused. Ginkgo will skip other tests and will only run the “focused” test. For more information, consult the Focused Specs documentation from Ginkgo.
It("Example test", func(){

FIt("Example focused test", func(){
  • From the command line: specify a more granular focus if you want to focus on, say, L7 tests:
ginkgo --focus "Run*" --focus "L7 "

This will focus on tests prefixed with “Run*”, and within that focus, run any test that starts with “L7”.

Test Reports

The Cilium Ginkgo framework formulates JUnit reports for each test. The following files currently are generated depending upon the test suite that is ran:

  • runtime.xml
  • K8s.xml

Best Practices for Writing Tests

  • Provide informative output to console during a test using the By construct. This helps with debugging and gives those who did not write the test a good idea of what is going on. The lower the barrier of entry is for understanding tests, the better our tests will be!
  • Leave the testing environment in the same state that it was in when the test started by deleting resources, resetting configuration, etc.
  • Gather logs in the case that a test fails. If a test fails while running on Jenkins, a postmortem needs to be done to analyze why. So, dumping logs to a location where Jenkins can pick them up is of the highest imperative. Use the following code in an AfterFailed method:
AfterFailed(func() {

Ginkgo Extensions

In Cilium, some Ginkgo features are extended to cover some uses cases that are useful for testing Cilium.


This function will run before all BeforeEach within a Describe or Context. This method is an equivalent to SetUp or initialize functions in common unit test frameworks.


This method will run after all AfterEach functions defined in a Describe or Context. This method is used for tearing down objects created which are used by all Its within the given Context or Describe. It is ran after all Its have ran, this method is a equivalent to tearDown or finalize methods in common unit test frameworks.

A good use case for using AfterAll method is to remove containers or pods that are needed for multiple Its in the given Context or Describe.


This method will run just after each test and before AfterFailed and AfterEach. The main reason of this method is to to perform some assertions for a group of tests. A good example of using a global JustAfterEach function is for deadlock detection, which checks the Cilium logs for deadlocks that may have occurred in the duration of the tests.


This method will run before all AfterEach and after JustAfterEach. This function is only called when the test failed.This construct is used to gather logs, the status of Cilium, etc, which provide data for analysis when tests fail.

Example Test Layout

Here is an example layout of how a test may be written with the aforementioned constructs:

Test description diagram:


Test execution flow:

    TESTA1; JustAfterEach(A), AfterFailed(A), AfterEach(A)
    TESTA2; JustAfterEach(A), AfterFailed(A), AfterEach(A)
    TESTA3; JustAfterEach(A), AfterFailed(A), AfterEach(A)
           JustAfterEach(B); JustAfterEach(A)
           AfterFailed(B); AfterFailed(A);
           AfterEach(B) ; AfterEach(A);
           JustAfterEach(B); JustAfterEach(A)
           AfterFailed(B); AfterFailed(A);
           AfterEach(B) ; AfterEach(A);
           JustAfterEach(B); JustAfterEach(A)
           AfterFailed(B); AfterFailed(A);
           AfterEach(B) ; AfterEach(A);


Ginkgo provides to us different ways of debugging. In case that you want to see all the logs messages in the console you can run the test in verbose mode using the option -v:

ginkgo --focus "Runtime*" -v

In case that the verbose mode is not enough, you can retrieve all run commands and their output in the report directory (./test/test_results). Each test creates a new folder, which contains a file called log where all information is saved, in case of a failing test an exhaustive data will be added.

$ head test/test_results/RuntimeKafkaKafkaPolicyIngress/logs
level=info msg=Starting testName=RuntimeKafka
level=info msg="Vagrant: running command \"vagrant ssh-config runtime\""
cmd: "sudo cilium status" exitCode: 0
 KVStore:            Ok         Consul:
ContainerRuntime:   Ok
Kubernetes:         Disabled
Kubernetes APIs:    [""]
Cilium:             Ok   OK
NodeMonitor:        Disabled
Allocated IPv4 addresses:

Running with delve

Delve is a debugging tool for Go applications. If you want to run your test with delve, you should add a new breakpoint using runtime.BreakPoint() in the code, and run ginkgo using dlv.

Example how to run ginkgo using dlv:

dlv test . -- --ginkgo.focus="Runtime" -ginkgo.v=true --cilium.provision=false

Running End-To-End Tests In Other Environments

If you want to run tests in a different VM, you can use --cilium.SSHConfig to provide the SSH configuration of the endpoint on which tests will be ran. The tests presume the following on the remote instance:

  • Cilium source code is located in the directory /home/vagrant/go/src/
  • Cilium is installed and running.

The ssh connection needs to be defined as a ssh-config file and need to have the following targets:

  • runtime: To run runtime tests
  • k8s{1..2}-${K8S_VERSION}: to run Kubernetes tests. These instances must have Kubernetes installed and running as a prerequisite for running tests.

An example ssh-config can be the following:

Host runtime
  User vagrant
  Port 2222
  UserKnownHostsFile /dev/null
  StrictHostKeyChecking no
  PasswordAuthentication no
  IdentityFile /home/eloy/.go/src/
  IdentitiesOnly yes
  LogLevel FATAL

To run this you can use the following command:

ginkgo  -v -- --cilium.provision=false --cilium.SSHConfig="cat ssh-config"

VMs for Testing

The VMs used for testing are defined in test/Vagrantfile. There are a variety of configuration options that can be passed as environment variables:

ENV variable Default Value Options Description
K8S_NODES 2 0..100 Number of Kubernetes nodes in the cluster
NFS 0 1 If Cilium folder needs to be shared using NFS
IPv6 0 0-1 If 1 the Kubernetes cluster will use IPv6
CONTAINER_RUNTIME docker containerd To set the default container runtime in the Kubernetes cluster
K8S_VERSION 1.13 1.** Kubernetes version to install
SERVER_BOX cilium/ubuntu-dev
Vagrantcloud base image
CPU 2 0..100 Number of CPUs that need to have the VM
MEMORY 4096 d+ RAM size in Megabytes

Further Assistance

Have a question about how the tests work or want to chat more about improving the testing infrastructure for Cilium? Hop on over to the testing channel on Slack.

How to contribute

Getting Started

  1. Make sure you have a GitHub account

  2. Clone the cilium repository

    go get -d
    cd $GOPATH/src/
  3. Set up your Setting up the development environment

  4. Check the GitHub issues for good tasks to get started.

Submitting a pull request

Contributions must be submitted in the form of pull requests against the github repository at:

  1. Fork the Cilium repository to your own personal GitHub space or request access to a Cilium developer account on Slack
  2. Push your changes to the topic branch in your fork of the repository.
  3. Submit a pull request on

Before hitting the submit button, please make sure that the following requirements have been met:

  1. Each commit compiles and is functional on its own to allow for bisecting of commits.

  2. All code is covered by unit and/or runtime tests where feasible.

  3. All changes have been tested and checked for regressions by running the existing testsuite against your changes. See the End-To-End Testing Framework section for additional details.

  4. All commits contain a well written commit description including a title, description and a Fixes: #XXX line if the commit addresses a particular GitHub issue. Note that the GitHub issue will be automatically closed when the commit is merged.

    apipanic: Log stack at debug level
    Previously, it was difficult to debug issues when the API panicked
    because only a single line like the following was printed:
    level=warning msg="Cilium API handler panicked" client=@ method=GET
    panic_message="write unix /var/run/cilium/cilium.sock->@: write: broken
    This patch logs the stack at this point at debug level so that it can at
    least be determined in developer environments.
    Fixes: #4191
    Signed-off-by: Joe Stringer <>
  5. If any of the commits fixes a particular commit already in the tree, that commit is referenced in the commit message of the bugfix. This ensures that whoever performs a backport will pull in all required fixes:

    daemon: use endpoint RLock in HandleEndpoint
    Fixes: a804c7c7dd9a ("daemon: wait for endpoint to be in ready state if specified via EndpointChangeRequest")
    Signed-off-by: André Martins <>
  6. All commits are signed off. See the section Developer’s Certificate of Origin.

  7. Pick the appropriate milestone for which this PR is being targeted to, e.g. 1.1, 1.2. This is in particular important in the time frame between the feature freeze and final release date.

  8. Pick the right release-note label

    Labels When to set
    release-note/bug This is a non-trivial bugfix
    release-note/major This is a major feature addition, e.g. Add MongoDB support
    release-note/minor This is a minor feature addition, e.g. Refactor endpoint package
  9. Verify the release note text. If not explicitly changed, the title of the PR will be used for the release notes. If you want to change this, you can add a special section to the description of the PR.

    This is a release note text


    If multiple lines are provided, then the first line serves as the high level bullet point item and any additional line will be added as a sub item to the first line.

  10. Pick the right labels for your PR:

    Labels When to set
    kind/bug This is a bugfix worth mentioning in the release notes
    kind/enhancement This is an enhancement/feature
    priority/release-blocker This PR should block the current release
    area/* Code area this PR covers
    needs-backport/X.Y PR needs to be backported to these stable releases
    pending-review PR is immediately ready for review
    wip PR is still work in progress, signals reviewers to hold.
    backport/X.Y This is backport PR, may only be set as part of Backporting process
    upgrade-impact The code changes have a potential upgrade impact

Getting a pull request merged

  1. As you submit the pull request as described in the section Submitting a pull request. One of the reviewers will start a CI run by replying with a comment test-me-please as described in Triggering Pull-Request Builds With Jenkins. If you are a core team member, you may trigger the CI run yourself.
    1. Hound: basic golang/lint static code analyzer. You need to make the puppy happy.
    2. CI / Jenkins: Will run a series of tests:
      1. Unit tests
      2. Single node runtime tests
      3. Multi node Kubernetes tests
  2. As part of the submission, GitHub will have requested a review from the respective code owners according to the CODEOWNERS file in the repository.
    1. Address any feedback received from the reviewers
    2. You can push individual commits to address feedback and then rebase your branch at the end before merging.
  3. Owners of the repository will automatically adjust the labels on the pull request to track its state and progress towards merging.
  4. Once the PR has been reviewed and the CI tests have passed, the PR will be merged by one of the repository owners. In case this does not happen, ping us on Slack.

Pull request review process


These instructions assume that whoever is reviewing is a member of the Cilium GitHub organization or has the status of a contributor. This is required to obtain the privileges to modify GitHub labels on the pull request.

  1. Review overall correctness of the PR according to the rules specified in the section Submitting a pull request.

    Set the label accordingly.

    Labels When to set
    dont-merge/needs-sign-off Some commits are not signed off
    needs-rebase PR is outdated and needs to be rebased
  2. As soon as a PR has the label pending-review, review the code and request changes as needed by using the GitHub Request Changes feature or by using Reviewable.

  3. Validate that bugfixes are marked with kind/bug and validate whether the assessment of backport requirements as requested by the submitter conforms to the Stable releases process.

    Labels When to set
    needs-backport/X.Y PR needs to be backported to these stable releases
  4. If the PR is subject to backport, validate that the PR does not mix bugfix and refactoring of code as it will heavily complicate the backport process. Demand for the PR to be split.

  5. Validate the release-note/* label and check the PR title for release note suitability. Put yourself into the perspective of a future release notes reader with lack of context and ensure the title is precise but brief.

    Labels When to set
    dont-merge/needs-release-note Do NOT merge PR, needs a release note
    release-note/bug This is a non-trivial bugfix
    release-note/major This is a major feature addition
    release-note/minor This is a minor feature addition
  6. Check for upgrade compatibility impact and if in doubt, set the label upgrade-impact and discuss in the Slack channel.

    Labels When to set
    upgrade-impact The code changes have a potential upgrade impact
  7. When everything looks OK, approve the changes.

  8. When all review objectives for all CODEOWNERS are met and all CI tests have passed, you may set the ready-to-merge label to indicate that all criteria have been met.

    Labels When to set
    ready-to-merge PR is ready to be merged

Building Container Images

Two make targets exists to build container images automatically based on the locally checked out branch:

Developer images

DOCKER_IMAGE_TAG=jane-developer-my-fix make dev-docker-image

You can then push the image tag to the registry for development builds:

docker push cilium/cilium-dev:jane-developer-my-fix

Access to the developer builds registry is restricted but access is granted liberally. Join the #development channel in Slack and ask for permission to push builds.

Official release images

Anyone can build official release images using the make target below but pushing to the official registries is restricted to Cilium maintainers. Ask in the #launchpad Slack channels for the exact details.

DOCKER_IMAGE_TAG=v1.4.0 make docker-image

You can then push the image tag to the registry:

docker push cilium/cilium:v1.4.0



The documentation has several dependencies which can be installed using pip:

$ pip install -r Documentation/requirements.txt

Whenever making changes to Cilium documentation you should check that you did not introduce any new warnings or errors, and also check that your changes look as you intended. To do this you can build the docs:

$ make -C Documentation html

After this you can browse the updated docs as HTML starting at Documentation\_build\html\index.html.

Alternatively you can use a Docker container to build the pages:

$ make render-docs

This builds the docs in a container and builds and starts a web server with your document changes.

Now the documentation page should be browsable on http://localhost:9080.

CI / Jenkins

The main CI infrastructure is maintained at

Jobs Overview


Runs validated Ginkgo tests which are confirmed to be stable and have been verified. These tests must always pass.

The configuration for this job is contained within ginkgo.Jenkinsfile.

It first runs unit tests using docker-compose using a YAML located at test/docker-compose.yaml.

The next steps happens in parallel:

  • Runs the single-node e2e tests using the Docker runtime.
  • Runs the multi-node Kubernetes e2e tests against the latest default version of Kubernetes specified above.


Runs the Kubernetes e2e tests against all Kubernetes versions that are not currently not tested as part of each pull-request, but which Cilium still supports, as well as the the most-recently-released versions of Kubernetes that that might not be declared stable by Kubernetes upstream:

First stage.

  • 1.10
  • 1.11

Second stage (other versions)

  • 1.12
  • 1.13

Third stage

  • 1.14
  • beta versions (1.16-beta once it’s out)


Runs long-lived tests which take extended time. Some of these tests have an expected failure rate.

Nightly tests run once per day in the Cilium-Nightly-Tests Job. The configuration for this job is stored in Jenkinsfile.nightly.

To see the results of these tests, you can view the JUnit Report for an individual job:

  1. Click on the build number you wish to get test results from on the left hand side of the Cilium-Nightly-Tests Job.
  2. Click on ‘Test Results’ on the left side of the page to view the results from the build. This will give you a report of which tests passed and failed. You can click on each test to view its corresponding output created from Ginkgo.

This first runs the Nightly tests with the following setup:

  • 4 Kubernetes 1.8 nodes
  • 4 GB of RAM per node.
  • 4 vCPUs per node.

Then, it runs tests Kubernetes tests against versions of Kubernetes that are currently not tested against as part of each pull-request, but that Cilium still supports.

It also runs a variety of tests against Envoy to ensure that proxy functionality is working correctly.

Triggering Pull-Request Builds With Jenkins

To ensure that build resources are used judiciously, builds on Jenkins are manually triggered via comments on each pull-request that contain “trigger-phrases”. Only members of the Cilium GitHub organization are allowed to trigger these jobs. Refer to the table below for information regarding which phrase triggers which build, which build is required for a pull-request to be merged, etc. Each linked job contains a description illustrating which subset of tests the job runs.

Jenkins Job Trigger Phrase Required To Merge?
Cilium-PR-Ginkgo-Tests-Validated test-me-please Yes
Cilium-Pr-Ginkgo-Test-k8s test-missed-k8s No
Cilium-Nightly-Tests-PR test-nightly No
Cilium-PR-Doc-Tests test-docs-please No
Cilium-PR-Kubernetes-Upstream test-upstream-k8s No
Cilium-PR-Flannel test-flannel No

There are some feature flags based on Pull Requests labels, the list of labels are the following:

  • area/containerd: Enable containerd runtime on all Kubernetes test.
  • ci/next-next: Run tests on net-next kernel. This causes the test-me-please target to only run on the net-next kernel. It is purely for testing on a different kernel, to merge a PR it must pass the CI without this flag.

Using Jenkins for testing

Typically when running Jenkins tests via one of the above trigger phases, it will run all of the tests in that particular category. However, there may be cases where you just want to run a single test quickly on Jenkins and observe the test result. To do so, you need to update the relevant test to have a custom name, and to update the Jenkins file to focus that test. Below is an example patch that shows how this can be achieved.

diff --git a/ginkgo.Jenkinsfile b/ginkgo.Jenkinsfile
index ee17808748a6..637f99269a41 100644
--- a/ginkgo.Jenkinsfile
+++ b/ginkgo.Jenkinsfile
@@ -62,10 +62,10 @@ pipeline {
             steps {
-                        sh 'cd ${TESTDIR}; ginkgo --focus="RuntimeValidated*" -v -noColor'
+                        sh 'cd ${TESTDIR}; ginkgo --focus="XFoooo*" -v -noColor'
-                        sh 'cd ${TESTDIR}; K8S_VERSION=1.9 ginkgo --focus=" K8sValidated*" -v -noColor ${FAILFAST}'
+                        sh 'cd ${TESTDIR}; K8S_VERSION=1.9 ginkgo --focus=" K8sFooooo*" -v -noColor ${FAILFAST}'
                     failFast: true
diff --git a/test/k8sT/Nightly.go b/test/k8sT/Nightly.go
index 62b324619797..3f955c73a818 100644
--- a/test/k8sT/Nightly.go
+++ b/test/k8sT/Nightly.go
@@ -466,7 +466,7 @@ var _ = Describe("NightlyExamples", func() {


-               It("K8sValidated Updating Cilium stable to master", func() {
+               FIt("K8sFooooo K8sValidated Updating Cilium stable to master", func() {
                        podFilter := "k8s:zgroup=testapp"

                        //This test should run in each PR for now.

CI Failure Triage

This section describes the process to triage CI failures. We define 3 categories:

Keyword Description
Flake Failure due to a temporary situation such as loss of connectivity to external services or bug in system component, e.g. is down, VM race conditions, kube-dns bug, …
CI-Bug Bug in the test itself that renders the test unreliable, e.g. timing issue when importing and missing to block until policy is being enforced before connectivity is verified.
Regression Failure is due to a regression, all failures in the CI that are not caused by bugs in the test are considered regressions.

Pipelines subject to triage

Build/test failures for the following Jenkins pipelines must be reported as GitHub issues using the process below:

Pipeline Description
Ginkgo-Tests-Validated-master Runs whenever a PR is merged into master
Ginkgo-CI-Tests-Pipeline Runs every two hours on the master branch
Master-Nightly Runs durability tests every night
Vagrant-Master-Boxes-Packer-Build Runs on merge into
Release-branch Runs various Ginkgo tests on merge into branch “v1.5”

Triage process

  1. Discover untriaged Jenkins failures via the script. It defaults to checking the previous 24 hours but this can be modified by setting the SINCE environment variable (it is a unix timestamp). The script checks the various test pipelines that need triage.

    $ contrib/scripts/


    You can quickly assign SINCE with statements like SINCE=`date -d -3days`

  2. Investigate the failure you are interested in and determine if it is a CI-Bug, Flake, or a Regression as defined in the table above.

    1. Search GitHub issues to see if bug is already filed. Make sure to also include closed issues in your search as a CI issue can be considered solved and then re-appears. Good search terms are:

      • The test name, e.g.

        k8s-1.7.K8sValidatedKafkaPolicyTest Kafka Policy Tests KafkaPolicies (from (k8s-1.7.xml))
      • The line on which the test failed, e.g.
      • The error message, e.g.

        Failed to produce from empire-hq on topic deathstar-plan
  3. If a corresponding GitHub issue exists, update it with:

    1. A link to the failing Jenkins build (note that the build information is eventually deleted).
    2. Attach the zipfile downloaded from Jenkins with logs from the failing tests. A zipfile for all tests is also available.
    3. Check how much time has passed since the last reported occurrence of this failure and move this issue to the correct column in the CI flakes project board.
  4. If no existing GitHub issue was found, file a new GitHub issue:

    1. Attach zipfile downloaded from Jenkins with logs from failing test
    2. If the failure is a new regression or a real bug:
      1. Title: <Short bug description>
      2. Labels kind/bug and needs/triage.
    3. If failure is a new CI-Bug, Flake or if you are unsure:
      1. Title CI: <testname>: <cause>, e.g. CI: K8sValidatedPolicyTest Namespaces: cannot curl service
      2. Labels kind/bug/CI and needs/triage
      3. Include a link to the failing Jenkins build (note that the build information is eventually deleted).
      4. Attach zipfile downloaded from Jenkins with logs from failing test
      5. Include the test name and whole Stacktrace section to help others find this issue.
      6. Add issue to CI flakes project


    Be extra careful when you see a new flake on a PR, and want to open an issue. It’s much more difficult to debug these without context around the PR and the changes it introduced. When creating an issue for a PR flake, include a description of the code change, the PR, or the diff. If it isn’t related to the PR, then it should already happen in master, and a new issue isn’t needed.

  5. Edit the description of the Jenkins build to mark it as triaged. This will exclude it from future output.

    1. Login -> Click on build -> Edit Build Information
    2. Add the failure type and GH issue number. Use the table describing the failure categories, at the beginning of this section, to help categorize them.


    This step can only be performed with an account on Jenkins. If you are interested in CI failure reviews and do not have an account yet, ping us on Slack.


  • Flake, is down
  • Flake, DNS not ready, #3333
  • CI-Bug, K8sValidatedPolicyTest: Namespaces, pod not ready, #9939
  • Regression, k8s host policy, #1111

Infrastructure details

Logging into VM running tests

  1. If you have access to credentials for Jenkins, log into the Jenkins slave running the test workload
  2. Identify the vagrant box running the specific test
$ vagrant global-status
id       name                          provider   state   directory
6e68c6c  k8s1-build-PR-1588-6          virtualbox running /root/jenkins/workspace/cilium_cilium_PR-1588-CWL743UTZEF6CPEZCNXQVSZVEW32FR3CMGKGY6667CU7X43AAZ4Q/tests/k8s
ec5962a  cilium-master-build-PR-1588-6 virtualbox running /root/jenkins/workspace/cilium_cilium_PR-1588-CWL743UTZEF6CPEZCNXQVSZVEW32FR3CMGKGY6667CU7X43AAZ4Q
bfaffaa  k8s2-build-PR-1588-6          virtualbox running /root/jenkins/workspace/cilium_cilium_PR-1588-CWL743UTZEF6CPEZCNXQVSZVEW32FR3CMGKGY6667CU7X43AAZ4Q/tests/k8s
3fa346c  k8s1-build-PR-1588-7          virtualbox running /root/jenkins/workspace/cilium_cilium_PR-1588-CWL743UTZEF6CPEZCNXQVSZVEW32FR3CMGKGY6667CU7X43AAZ4Q@2/tests/k8s
b7ded3c  cilium-master-build-PR-1588-7 virtualbox running /root/jenkins/workspace/cilium_cilium_PR-1588-CWL743UTZEF6CPEZCNXQVSZVEW32FR3CMGKGY6667CU7X43AAZ4Q@2
  1. Log into the specific VM
$ JOB_BASE_NAME=PR-1588 BUILD_NUMBER=6 vagrant ssh 6e68c6c

Jenkinsfiles Extensions

Cilium uses a custom Jenkins helper library to gather metadata from PRs and simplify our Jenkinsfiles. The exported methods are:

  • ispr(): return true if the current build is a PR.
  • setIfPr(string, string): return the first argument in case of a PR, if not a PR return the second one.
  • BuildIfLabel(String label, String Job): trigger a new Job if the PR has that specific Label.
  • Status(String status, String context): set pull request check status on the given context, example Status("SUCCESS", "$JOB_BASE_NAME")

Release Management

This section describes the release cadence and all release related processes.

Release Cadence

Cilium schedules a minor release every 6 weeks. Each minor release is performed by incrementing the Y in the version format X.Y.Z. The group of committers can decide to increment X instead to mark major milestones in which case Y is reset to 0.

Stable releases

The committers can nominate PRs merged into master as required for backport into the stable release branches. Upon necessity, stable releases are published with the version X.Y.Z+1. Stable releases are regularly released in high frequency or on demand to address major incidents.

In order to guarantee stable production usage while maintaining a high release cadence, the following stable releases will be maintained:

  • Stable backports into the last two releases
  • LTS release for extended long term backport coverage

Backport criteria for X.Y.Z+n

Criteria for the inclusion into latest stable release branch, i.e. what goes into v1.1.x before v1.2.0 has been released:

  • All bugfixes

Backport criteria for X.Y-1.Z

Criteria for the inclusion into the stable release branch of the previous release, i.e. what goes into v1.0.x, before v1.2.0 has been released:

  • Security relevant fixes
  • Major bugfixes relevant to the correct operation of Cilium


The group of committers nominates a release to be a long term stable release. Such releases are guaranteed to receive backports for major and security relevant bugfixes. LTS releases will be declared end of life after 6 months. The group of committers will nominate and start supporting a new LTS release before the current LTS expires. If for some reason, no release can be declared LTS before the current LTS release expires, the current LTS lifetime will be extended.

Given the current 6 weeks release cadence, the development teams will aim at declaring every 3rd release to be an LTS to guarantee enough time overlap between LTS release.

Current LTS releases

Release Original Release Date Scheduled End of Life
1.0 2018-04-24 2018-10-24

Generic Release Process

This process applies to all releases other than minor releases, this includes:

  • Stable releases
  • Release candidates

If you intent to release a new minor release, see the Minor Release Process section instead.


The following commands have been validated when ran in the VM used in the Cilium development process. See Setting up the development environment for detailed instructions about setting up said VM.

  1. Ensure that the necessary backports have been completed and merged. See Backporting process.

  2. Checkout the desired stable branch and pull it:

    git checkout v1.0; git pull
  3. Create a branch for the release pull request:

    git checkout -b pr/prepare-v1.0.3
  4. Update the VERSION file to represent X.Y.Z+1

  5. If this is the first release after creating a new release branch. Adjust the image pull policy for all .sed files in examples/kubernetes from Always to IfNotPresent.

  6. Update the image tag versions in the examples:

    make -C examples/kubernetes clean all
  7. Update the cilium_version and cilium_tag variables in examples/getting-started/Vagrantfile

  8. Update the AUTHORS file

    make update-authors


    Check to see if the AUTHORS file has any formatting errors (for instance, indentation mismatches) as well as duplicate contributor names, and correct them accordingly.

  9. Generate the release notes by running the instructions provided in

  10. Add the generated release notes in the file

  11. Add all modified files using git add and create a pull request with the title Prepare for release v1.0.3. Add the backport label to the PR which corresponds to the branch for which the release is being performed, e.g. backport/1.0.


    Make sure to create the PR against the desired stable branch. In this case v1.0

  12. Follow standard procedures to get the aforementioned PR merged into the desired stable branch. See Submitting a pull request for more information about this process.

  13. Checkout out the stable branch and pull your merged changes:

    git checkout v1.0; git pull
  14. Create release tags:

    git tag -a v1.0.3 -m 'Release v1.0.3'
    git tag -a 1.0.3 -m 'Release 1.0.3'


    There are two tags that correspond to the same release because GitHub recommends using vx.y.z for release version formatting, and ReadTheDocs, which hosts the Cilium documentation, requires the version to be in format x.y.z For more information about how ReadTheDocs does versioning, you can read their Versions Documentation.

  15. Build the binaries and push it to the release bucket: ./contrib/release/uploadrev v1.0.3

    This step will print a markdown snippet which you will need when crafting the GitHub release so make sure to keep it handy.

  16. Build the container images and push them

    DOCKER_IMAGE_TAG=v1.0.3 make docker-image
    docker push cilium/cilium:v1.0.3
  17. Push the git release tag

    git push --tags
  18. Create a GitHub release:

    1. Choose the correct target branch, e.g. v1.0
    2. Choose the correct target tag, e.g. v1.0.3
    3. Title: 1.0.3
    4. Check the This is a pre-release box if you are releasing a release candidate.
    5. Fill in the release description with the output generated by
    6. Preview the description and then publish the release
  19. Announce the release in the #general channel on Slack

  20. Bump the version of Cilium used in the Cilium upgrade tests to use the new release

    Please reach out on the #development channel on Slack for assistance with this task.

Minor Release Process

On Freeze date

  1. Fork a new release branch from master:

    git checkout master; git pull
    git checkout -b v1.2
    git push
  2. Protect the branch using the GitHub UI to disallow direct push and require merging via PRs with proper reviews.

  3. Replace the contents of the CODEOWNERS file with the following to reduce code reviews to essential approvals:

    * @cilium/janitors
    api/ @cilium/api
    pkg/apisocket/ @cilium/api
    pkg/monitor/payload @cilium/api
    pkg/policy/api/ @cilium/api
    pkg/proxy/accesslog @cilium/api
  4. Commit changes, open a pull request against the new v1.2 branch, and get the pull request merged

    git checkout -b pr/prepare-v1.2
    git add [...]
    git commit
    git push
  5. Follow the Generic Release Process to release v1.2.0-rc1.

  6. Create the following GitHub labels:

    1. backport-pending/1.2
    2. backport-done/1.2
    3. backport/1.2
    4. needs-backport/1.2
  7. Prepare the master branch for the next development cycle:

    git checkout master; git pull
  8. Update the VERSION file to contain v1.2.90

  9. Add the VERSION file using git add and create & merge a PR titled Prepare for 1.3.0 development.

  10. Update the release branch on

    Jenkins to be tested on every change and Nightly.

  11. (Only 1.0 minor releases) Tag newest 1.0.x Docker image as v1.0-stable and push it to Docker Hub. This will ensure that Kops uses latest 1.0 release by default.

For the final release

  1. Follow the Generic Release Process to create the final replace and replace X.Y.0-rcX with X.Y.0.

Backporting process

Cilium PRs that are marked with the label needs-backport/X.Y need to be backported to the stable branch X.Y. The following steps summarize the process for backporting these PRs.

  1. Make sure the Github labels are up-to-date, as this process will deal with all commits from PRs that have the needs-backport/X.Y label set (for a stable release version X.Y). If any PRs contain labels such as backport-pending/X.Y, ensure that the backport for that PR have been merged and if so, change the label to backport-done/X.Y.

  2. The scripts referred to below need to be run in Linux, they do not work on OSX. You can use the cilium dev VM for this, but you need to configure git to have your name and email address to be used in the commit messages:

    $ git config --global "John Doe"
    $ git config --global
  3. Make sure you have your a GitHub developer access token available. For details, see contrib/backporting/

  4. Fetch the repo, e.g., git fetch

  5. Check a new branch for your backports based on the stable branch for that version, e.g., git checkout -b pr/v1.0-backport-YY-MM-DD origin/v1.0

  6. Run the check-stable script, referring to your Github access token, this will list the commits that need backporting, from the newest to oldest:

    $ GITHUB_TOKEN=xxx contrib/backporting/check-stable 1.0


    contrib/backporting/check-stable accepts a second argument to specify a path to write a nicely-formatted pull request message to. This can be used alongside Github command-line tools to send the pull request from the command line in steps 9-10 via gh pull-request -b vX.Y -l backport/vX.Y -F <path>.

  7. Cherry-pick the commits using the master git SHAs listed, starting from the oldest (bottom), working your way up and fixing any merge conflicts as they appear. Note that for PRs that have multiple commits you will want to check that you are cherry-picking oldest commits first. The cherry-pick script accepts multiple arguments, in which case it will attempt to apply each commit in the order specified on the command line until one cherry pick fails or every commit is cherry-picked.

    $ contrib/backporting/cherry-pick <oldest-commit-sha>
    $ contrib/backporting/cherry-pick <newest-commit-sha>
  8. Push your backports branch to cilium repo, e.g., git push -u origin pr/v1.0-backports-YY-MM-DD

  9. In Github, create a new PR from your branch towards the feature branch you are backporting to. Note that by default Github creates PRs against the master branch, so you will need to change it.

  10. Label the new backport PR with the backport label for the stable branch such as backport/X.Y so that it is easy to find backport PRs later.

  11. Mark all PRs you backported with the backport pending label backport-pending/X.Y and clear the needs-backport/vX.Y label. This can be via the GitHub interface, or using the backport script contrib/backporting/, e.g.:

    # Set PR 1234's v1.0 backporting labels to pending
    $ contrib/backporting/ 1234 pending 1.0


    contrib/backporting/ requires Python 3 and PyGithub installed.

  12. After the backport PR is merged, mark all backported PRs with backport-done/X.Y label and clear the backport-pending/X.Y label(s).

    # Set PR 1234's v1.0 backporting labels to done
    contrib/backporting/ 1234 done 1.0.

Update cilium-builder and cilium-runtime images

Login to with your credentials to the repository that you want to update:

cilium-builder - contains Cilium build-time dependencies cilium-runtime - contains Cilium run-time dependencies

  1. After login, select the tab “builds” on the left menu.
  1. Click on the wheel.
  2. Enable the trigger for that build trigger.
  1. Confirm that you want to enable the trigger.
  1. After enabling the trigger, click again on the wheel.
  2. And click on “Run Trigger Now”.
  1. A new pop-up will appear and you can select the branch that contains your changes.
  2. Select the branch that contains the new changes.
  1. After selecting your branch click on “Start Build”.
  1. Once the build has started you can disable the Build trigger by clicking on the wheel.
  2. And click on “Disable Trigger”.
  1. Confirm that you want to disable the build trigger.
  1. Once the build is finished click under Tags (on the left menu).
  2. Click on the wheel and;
  3. Add a new tag to the image that was built.
  1. Write the name of the tag that you want to give for the newly built image.
  2. Confirm the name is correct and click on “Create Tag”.
  1. After the new tag was created you can delete the other tag, which is the name of your branch. Select the tag name.
  2. Click in Actions.
  3. Click in “Delete Tags”.
  1. Confirm that you want to delete tag with your branch name.

You have created a new image build with a new tag. The next steps should be to update the repository root’s Dockerfile so that it points to the new cilium-builder or cilium-runtime image recently created.

  1. Update the versions of the images that are pulled into the CI VMs.
  • Open a PR against the Packer-CI-Build with an update to said image versions. Once your PR is merged, a new version of the VM will be ready for consumption in the CI.
  • Update the SERVER_VERSION field in test/Vagrantfile to contain the new version, which is the build number from the Jenkins Job for the VMs. For example, build 119 from the pipeline would be the value to set for SERVER_VERSION.
  • Open a pull request with this version change in the cilium repository.

Nightly Docker image

After each successful Nightly build, a cilium/nightly image is pushed to dockerhub.

To use latest nightly build, please use cilium/nightly:latest tag. Nightly images are stored on dockerhub tagged with following format: YYYYMMDD-<job number>. Job number is added to tag for the unlikely event of two consecutive nightly builds being built on the same date.

Developer’s Certificate of Origin

To improve tracking of who did what, we’ve introduced a “sign-off” procedure.

The sign-off is a simple line at the end of the explanation for the commit, which certifies that you wrote it or otherwise have the right to pass it on as open-source work. The rules are pretty simple: if you can certify the below:

Developer Certificate of Origin
Version 1.1

Copyright (C) 2004, 2006 The Linux Foundation and its contributors.
1 Letterman Drive
Suite D4700
San Francisco, CA, 94129

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this
license document, but changing it is not allowed.

Developer's Certificate of Origin 1.1

By making a contribution to this project, I certify that:

(a) The contribution was created in whole or in part by me and I
    have the right to submit it under the open source license
    indicated in the file; or

(b) The contribution is based upon previous work that, to the best
    of my knowledge, is covered under an appropriate open source
    license and I have the right under that license to submit that
    work with modifications, whether created in whole or in part
    by me, under the same open source license (unless I am
    permitted to submit under a different license), as indicated
    in the file; or

(c) The contribution was provided directly to me by some other
    person who certified (a), (b) or (c) and I have not modified

(d) I understand and agree that this project and the contribution
    are public and that a record of the contribution (including all
    personal information I submit with it, including my sign-off) is
    maintained indefinitely and may be redistributed consistent with
    this project or the open source license(s) involved.

then you just add a line saying:

Signed-off-by: Random J Developer <>

Use your real name (sorry, no pseudonyms or anonymous contributions.)