A deployment of Cilium consists of the following components running on each Linux container node in the container cluster:
- Cilium Agent (Daemon): Userspace daemon that interacts with the container runtime and orchestration systems such as Kubernetes via Plugins to setup networking and security for containers running on the local server. Provides an API for configuring network security policies, extracting network visibility data, etc.
- Cilium CLI Client: Simple CLI client for communicating with the local Cilium Agent, for example, to configure network security or visibility policies.
- Linux Kernel BPF: Integrated capability of the Linux kernel to accept compiled bytecode that is run at various hook / trace points within the kernel. Cilium compiles BPF programs and has the kernel run them at key points in the network stack to have visibility and control over all network traffic in / out of all containers.
- Container Platform Network Plugin: Each container platform (e.g., Docker, Kubernetes) has its own plugin model for how external networking platforms integrate. In the case of Docker, each Linux node runs a process (cilium-docker) that handles each Docker libnetwork call and passes data / requests on to the main Cilium Agent.
In addition to these components, Cilium also depends on the following components running in the cluster:
- Key-Value Store: Cilium shares data between Cilium Agents on different nodes via a kvstore. The currently supported key-value stores are etcd or consul.
- Cilium Operator: Daemon for handling cluster management duties which can be handled once per cluster, rather than once per node.
The Cilium agent (cilium-agent) runs on each Linux container host. At a high-level, the agent accepts configuration that describes service-level network security and visibility policies. It then listens to events in the container runtime to learn when containers are started or stopped, and it creates custom BPF programs which the Linux kernel uses to control all network access in / out of those containers. In more detail, the agent:
- Exposes APIs to allow operations / security teams to configure security policies (see below) that control all communication between containers in the cluster. These APIs also expose monitoring capabilities to gain additional visibility into network forwarding and filtering behavior.
- Gathers metadata about each new container that is created. In particular, it queries identity metadata like container / pod labels, which are used to identify Endpoint in Cilium security policies.
- Interacts with the container platforms network plugin to perform IP address management (IPAM), which controls what IPv4 and IPv6 addresses are assigned to each container. The IPAM is managed by the agent in a shared pool between all plugins which means that the Docker and CNI network plugin can run side by side allocating a single address pool.
- Combines its knowledge about container identity and addresses with the already configured security and visibility policies to generate highly efficient BPF programs that are tailored to the network forwarding and security behavior appropriate for each container.
- Compiles the BPF programs to bytecode using clang/LLVM and passes them to the Linux kernel to run for all packets in / out of the container’s virtual ethernet device(s).
Cilium CLI Client¶
The Cilium CLI Client (cilium) is a command-line tool that is installed along with the Cilium Agent. It gives a command-line interface to interact with all aspects of the Cilium Agent API. This includes inspecting Cilium’s state about each network endpoint (i.e., container), configuring and viewing security policies, and configuring network monitoring behavior.
Linux Kernel BPF¶
Berkeley Packet Filter (BPF) is a Linux kernel bytecode interpreter originally introduced to filter network packets, e.g. tcpdump and socket filters. It has since been extended with additional data structures such as hashtable and arrays as well as additional actions to support packet mangling, forwarding, encapsulation, etc. An in-kernel verifier ensures that BPF programs are safe to run and a JIT compiler converts the bytecode to CPU architecture specific instructions for native execution efficiency. BPF programs can be run at various hooking points in the kernel such as for incoming packets, outgoing packets, system calls, kprobes, etc.
BPF continues to evolve and gain additional capabilities with each new Linux release. Cilium leverages BPF to perform core datapath filtering, mangling, monitoring and redirection, and requires BPF capabilities that are in any Linux kernel version 4.8.0 or newer. On the basis that 4.8.x is already declared end of life and 4.9.x has been nominated as a stable release we recommend to run at least kernel 4.9.17 (the latest current stable Linux kernel as of this writing is 4.10.x).
Cilium is capable of probing the Linux kernel for available features and will automatically make use of more recent features as they are detected.
Linux distros that focus on being a container runtime (e.g., CoreOS, Fedora Atomic) typically already ship kernels that are newer than 4.8, but even recent versions of general purpose operating systems such as Ubuntu 16.10 ship fairly recent kernels. Some Linux distributions still ship older kernels but many of them allow installing recent kernels from separate kernel package repositories.
For more detail on kernel versions, see: Linux Kernel.
The Key-Value (KV) Store is used for the following state:
- Policy Identities: list of labels <=> policy identity identifier
- Global Services: global service id to VIP association (optional)
- Encapsulation VTEP mapping (optional)
To simplify things in a larger deployment, the key-value store can be the same one used by the container orchestrator (e.g., Kubernetes using etcd).
The Cilium Operator is responsible for managing duties in the cluster which should logically be handled once for the entire cluster, rather than once for each node in the cluster. Its design helps with scale limitations in large kubernetes clusters (>1000 nodes). The responsibilities of Cilium operator include:
- Synchronizing kubernetes services with etcd for Cluster Mesh
- Synchronizing node resources with etcd
- Ensuring that DNS pods are managed by Cilium
- Garbage-collection of Cilium Endpoints resources, unused security identities from the key-value store, and status of deleted nodes from CiliumNetworkPolicy
- Translation of
- Interaction with the AWS API for managing AWS ENI