Monitoring & Metrics

cilium-agent and cilium-operator can be configured to serve Prometheus metrics. Prometheus is a pluggable metrics collection and storage system and can act as a data source for Grafana, a metrics visualization frontend. Unlike some metrics collectors like statsd, Prometheus requires the collectors to pull metrics from each source.

To run Cilium with Prometheus metrics enabled, deploy it with the global.prometheus.enabled=true Helm value set.

All metrics are exported under the cilium Prometheus namespace. When running and collecting in Kubernetes they will be tagged with a pod name and namespace.


When deployed with the Helm value global.prometheus.enabled=true, all Cilium components will have the annotations to signal Prometheus whether to scrape metrics: "true" "9090"

Example Prometheus & Grafana Deployment

If you don’t have an existing Prometheus and Grafana stack running, you can deploy a stack with:

kubectl apply -f

It will run Prometheus and Grafana in the cilium-monitoring namespace. You can then expose Grafana to access it via your browser.

kubectl -n cilium-monitoring port-forward service/grafana 3000:3000

Open your browser and access https://localhost:3000/


To expose any metrics, invoke cilium-agent with the --prometheus-serve-addr option. This option takes a IP:Port pair but passing an empty IP (e.g. :9090) will bind the server to all available interfaces (there is usually only one in a container).

in examples/kubernetes/addons/prometheus/monitoring-example.yaml

Exported Metrics


Name Labels Description
endpoint_count   Number of endpoints managed by this agent
endpoint_regenerations outcome Count of all endpoint regenerations that have completed
endpoint_regeneration_time_stats_seconds scope Endpoint regeneration time stats
endpoint_state state Count of all endpoints


Name Labels Description
services_events_total   Number of services events labeled by action type


Name Labels Description
datapath_errors_total area, name, family Total number of errors occurred in datapath management
datapath_conntrack_gc_runs_total status Number of times that the conntrack garbage collector process was run
datapath_conntrack_gc_key_fallbacks_total   The number of alive and deleted conntrack entries at the end of a garbage collector run labeled by datapath family
datapath_conntrack_gc_entries family The number of alive and deleted conntrack entries at the end of a garbage collector run
datapath_conntrack_gc_duration_seconds status Duration in seconds of the garbage collector process


Name Labels Description
bpf_syscall_duration_seconds operation, outcome Duration of BPF system call performed
bpf_map_ops_total mapName, operation, outcome Number of BPF map operations performed

Drops/Forwards (L3/L4)

Name Labels Description
drop_count_total reason, direction Total dropped packets
drop_bytes_total reason, direction Total dropped bytes
forward_count_total direction Total forwarded packets
forward_bytes_total direction Total forwarded bytes


Name Labels Description
policy_count   Number of policies currently loaded
policy_regeneration_total   Total number of policies regenerated successfully
policy_regeneration_time_stats_seconds scope Policy regeneration time stats labeled by the scope
policy_max_revision   Highest policy revision number in the agent
policy_import_errors   Number of times a policy import has failed
policy_endpoint_enforcement_status   Number of endpoints labeled by policy enforcement status

Policy L7 (HTTP/Kafka)

Name Labels Description
proxy_redirects protocol Number of redirects installed for endpoints
proxy_upstream_reply_seconds   Seconds waited for upstream server to reply to a request
policy_l7_total type Number of total L7 requests/responses


Name Labels Description
identity_count   Number of identities currently allocated

Events external to Cilium

Name Labels Description
event_ts source Last timestamp when we received an event


Name Labels Description
controllers_runs_total status Number of times that a controller process was run
controllers_runs_duration_seconds status Duration in seconds of the controller process


Name Labels Description
subprocess_start_total subsystem Number of times that Cilium has started a subprocess


Name Labels Description
kubernetes_events_received_total scope, action, validity, equal Number of Kubernetes events received
kubernetes_events_total scope, action, outcome Number of Kubernetes events processed
k8s_cnp_status_completion_seconds attempts, outcome Duration in seconds in how long it took to complete a CNP status update


Name Labels Description
ipam_events_total   Number of IPAM events received labeled by action and datapath family type


Name Labels Description
kvstore_operations_duration_seconds action, kind, outcome, scope Duration of kvstore operation
kvstore_events_queue_seconds action, scope Duration of seconds of time received event was blocked before it could be queued
kvstore_quorum_errors_total error Number of quorum errors


Name Labels Description
agent_bootstrap_seconds scope, outcome Duration of various bootstrap phases
api_process_time_seconds   Processing time of all the API calls made to the cilium-agent, labeled by API method, API path and returned HTTP code.

API Rate Limiting

Name Labels Description
cilium_api_limiter_adjustment_factor api_call Most recent adjustment factor for automatic adjustment
cilium_api_limiter_processed_requests_total api_call, outcome Total number of API requests processed
cilium_api_limiter_processing_duration_seconds api_call, value Mean and estimated processing duration in seconds
cilium_api_limiter_rate_limit api_call, value Current rate limiting configuration (limit and burst)
cilium_api_limiter_requests_in_flight api_call value Current and maximum allowed number of requests in flight
cilium_api_limiter_wait_duration_seconds api_call, value Mean, min, and max wait duration
cilium_api_limiter_wait_history_duration_seconds api_call Histogram of wait duration per API call processed


Name Labels Description
qdn_gc_deletions_total   Number of FQDNs that have been cleaned on FQDN garbage collector job


cilium-operator can be configured to serve metrics by running with the option --enable-metrics. By default, the operator will expose metrics on port 6942, the port can be changed with the option --metrics-address.

Exported Metrics

All metrics are exported under the cilium_operator_ Prometheus namespace.


Name Labels Description
eni_ips type Number of IPs allocated
eni_allocation_ops subnetId Number of IP allocation operations
eni_interface_creation_ops subnetId, status Number of ENIs allocated
eni_available   Number of ENIs with addresses available
eni_nodes_at_capacity   Number of nodes unable to allocate more addresses
eni_aws_api_duration_seconds operation, responseCode Duration of interactions with AWS API
eni_resync_total   Number of synchronization operations to synchronize AWS EC2 metadata
eni_ec2_rate_limit operation Number of times the EC2 client rate limiter kicked in