Installation with managed etcd¶
The standard Quick Installation guide will set up Cilium to use Kubernetes CRDs to store and propagate state between agents. Use of CRDs can impose scale limitations depending on the size of your environment. Use of etcd optimizes the propagation of state between agents. This guide explains the steps required to set up Cilium with a managed etcd where etcd is managed by an operator which maintains an etcd cluster as part of the Kubernetes cluster.
The identity allocation remains to be CRD-based which means that etcd remains an optional component to improve scalability. Failures in providing etcd will not be critical to the availability of Cilium but will reduce the efficacy of state propagation. This allows the managed etcd to recover while depending on Cilium itself to provide connectivity and security.
Make sure your Kubernetes environment is meeting the requirements:
- Kubernetes >= 1.12
- Linux kernel >= 4.9
- Kubernetes in CNI mode
- Mounted eBPF filesystem mounted on all worker nodes
- Recommended: Enable PodCIDR allocation (
--allocate-node-cidrs) in the
Refer to the section Requirements for detailed instruction on how to prepare your Kubernetes environment.
Deploy Cilium + cilium-etcd-operator¶
Setup Helm repository:
helm repo add cilium https://helm.cilium.io/
Deploy Cilium release via Helm:
helm install cilium cilium/cilium --version 1.9.9 \ --namespace kube-system \ --set etcd.enabled=true \ --set etcd.managed=true \ --set etcd.k8sService=true
If you do not want Cilium to store state in Kubernetes custom resources (CRDs),
Validate the Installation¶
You can monitor as Cilium and all required components are being installed:
kubectl -n kube-system get pods --watch NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE cilium-etcd-operator-6ffbd46df9-pn6cf 1/1 Running 0 7s cilium-operator-cb4578bc5-q52qk 0/1 Pending 0 8s cilium-s8w5m 0/1 PodInitializing 0 7s coredns-86c58d9df4-4g7dd 0/1 ContainerCreating 0 8m57s coredns-86c58d9df4-4l6b2 0/1 ContainerCreating 0 8m57s
It may take a couple of minutes for the etcd-operator to bring up the necessary number of etcd pods to achieve quorum. Once it reaches quorum, all components should be healthy and ready:
cilium-etcd-8d95ggpjmw 1/1 Running 0 78s cilium-etcd-operator-6ffbd46df9-pn6cf 1/1 Running 0 4m12s cilium-etcd-t695lgxf4x 1/1 Running 0 118s cilium-etcd-zw285m6t9g 1/1 Running 0 2m41s cilium-operator-cb4578bc5-q52qk 1/1 Running 0 4m13s cilium-s8w5m 1/1 Running 0 4m12s coredns-86c58d9df4-4g7dd 1/1 Running 0 13m coredns-86c58d9df4-4l6b2 1/1 Running 0 13m etcd-operator-5cf67779fd-hd9j7 1/1 Running 0 2m42s
Specify Environment Variables¶
Specify the namespace in which Cilium is installed as
environment variable. Subsequent commands reference this environment variable.
Enable Hubble for Cluster-Wide Visibility¶
Hubble is the component for observability in Cilium. To obtain cluster-wide visibility into your network traffic, deploy Hubble Relay and the UI as follows on your existing installation:
Once the Hubble UI pod is started, use port forwarding for the
service. This allows opening the UI locally on a browser:
kubectl port-forward -n $CILIUM_NAMESPACE svc/hubble-ui --address 0.0.0.0 --address :: 12000:80
And then open http://localhost:12000/ to access the UI.
Hubble UI is not the only way to get access to Hubble data. A command line tool, the Hubble CLI, is also available. It can be installed by following the instructions below:
Similarly to the UI, use port forwarding for the
hubble-relay service to
make it available locally:
kubectl port-forward -n $CILIUM_NAMESPACE svc/hubble-relay --address 0.0.0.0 --address :: 4245:80
In a separate terminal window, run the
hubble status command specifying the
Hubble Relay address:
$ hubble --server localhost:4245 status Healthcheck (via localhost:4245): Ok Current/Max Flows: 5455/16384 (33.29%) Flows/s: 11.30 Connected Nodes: 4/4
If Hubble Relay reports that all nodes are connected, as in the example output above, you can now use the CLI to observe flows of the entire cluster:
hubble --server localhost:4245 observe
If you encounter any problem at this point, you may seek help on Slack.
Hubble CLI configuration can be persisted using a configuration file or
environment variables. This avoids having to specify options specific to a
particular environment every time a command is run. Run
config for more information.
For more information about Hubble and its components, see the Observability section.
Make sure that
corednsis running and healthy in the
kube-systemnamespace. A functioning Kubernetes DNS is strictly required in order for Cilium to resolve the ClusterIP of the etcd cluster. If either
corednswere already running before Cilium was deployed, the pods may be managed by a former CNI plugin.
cilium-operatorwill automatically restart the pods to ensure that they are being managed by the Cilium CNI plugin. You can manually restart the pods as well if required and validate that Cilium is managing
corednsby running:kubectl -n kube-system get cep
You should see
In order for the entire system to come up, the following components have to be running at the same time:
All timeouts are configured that this will typically work out smoothly even if some of the pods restart once or twice. In case any of the above pods get into a long
CrashLoopBackoff, bootstrapping can be expedited by restarting the pods to reset the
CoreDNS: Enable reverse lookups¶
In order for the TLS certificates between etcd peers to work correctly, a DNS
reverse lookup on a pod IP must map back to pod name. If you are using CoreDNS,
check the CoreDNS ConfigMap and validate that
are listed as wildcards for the kubernetes block like this:
The contents can look different than the above. The specific configuration that
matters is to make sure that
ip6.arpa are listed as
wildcards next to
You can validate this by looking up a pod IP with the
host utility from any
host 10.60.20.86 184.108.40.206.in-addr.arpa domain name pointer cilium-etcd-972nprv9dp.cilium-etcd.kube-system.svc.cluster.local.
What is the cilium-etcd-operator?¶
The cilium-etcd-operator uses and extends the etcd-operator to guarantee quorum, auto-create certificates, and manage compaction:
- Automatic re-creation of the etcd cluster when the cluster loses quorum. The standard etcd-operator will refuse to bring up new etcd nodes and the etcd cluster becomes unusable.
- Automatic creation of certificates and keys. This simplifies the installation of the operator and makes the certificates and keys required to access the etcd cluster available to Cilium using a well known Kubernetes secret name.
- Compaction is automatically handled.
Use of the cilium-etcd-operator offers a lot of advantages including simplicity of installation, automatic management of the etcd cluster including compaction, restart on quorum loss, and automatic use of TLS. There are several disadvantages which can become of relevance as you scale up your clusters:
- etcd nodes operated by the etcd-operator will not use persistent storage. Once the etcd cluster looses quorum, the etcd cluster is automatically re-created by the cilium-etcd-operator. Cilium will automatically recover and re-create all state in etcd. This operation can take couple of seconds and may cause minor disruptions as ongoing distributed locks are invalidated and security identities have to be re-allocated.
- etcd is very sensitive to disk IO latency and requires fast disk access at a certain scale. The cilium-etcd-operator will not take any measures to provide fast disk access and performance will depend whatever is provided to the pods in your Kubernetes cluster. See etcd Hardware recommendations for more details.