Getting Started Using Minikube¶
This guide uses minikube to demonstrate deployment and operation of Cilium in a single-node Kubernetes cluster. The minikube VM requires approximately 5GB of RAM and supports hypervisors like VirtualBox that run on Linux, macOS, and Windows.
Install kubectl & minikube¶
kubectlversion >= v1.10.0 as described in the Kubernetes Docs
minikube>= v1.3.1 as per minikube documentation: Install Minikube.
It is important to validate that you have minikube v1.3.1 installed. Older versions of minikube are shipping a kernel configuration that is not compatible with the TPROXY requirements of Cilium >= 1.6.0.
minikube version minikube version: v1.3.1 commit: ca60a424ce69a4d79f502650199ca2b52f29e631
- Create a minikube cluster:
minikube start --network-plugin=cni --memory=4096
If minikube is deployed as a container (that is if
docker is the configured
driver), then kube-proxy replacement features like host-reachable services
may not work (GitHub issue).
If you experience Kubernetes service load-balancing issues, then
set any other driver
from the supported list.
minikube start --cni=cilium --memory=4096 # Only available for minikube >= v1.12.1
From minikube v1.12.1+, cilium networking plugin can be enabled directly with
--cni=cilium parameter in
minikube start command. With this
minikube will not only mount eBPF file system but also
quick-install.yaml automatically. However, this may not install
the latest version of cilium.
- Mount the eBPF filesystem
minikube ssh -- sudo mount bpffs -t bpf /sys/fs/bpf
In case of installing Cilium for a specific Kubernetes version, the
--kubernetes-version vx.y.z parameter can be appended to the
start command for bootstrapping the local cluster. By default, minikube
will install the most recent version of Kubernetes.
Install Cilium as DaemonSet into your new Kubernetes cluster. The DaemonSet will automatically install itself as Kubernetes CNI plugin.
Validate the Installation¶
You can monitor as Cilium and all required components are being installed:
kubectl -n kube-system get pods --watch NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE cilium-operator-cb4578bc5-q52qk 0/1 Pending 0 8s cilium-s8w5m 0/1 PodInitializing 0 7s coredns-86c58d9df4-4g7dd 0/1 ContainerCreating 0 8m57s coredns-86c58d9df4-4l6b2 0/1 ContainerCreating 0 8m57s
It may take a couple of minutes for all components to come up:
cilium-operator-cb4578bc5-q52qk 1/1 Running 0 4m13s cilium-s8w5m 1/1 Running 0 4m12s coredns-86c58d9df4-4g7dd 1/1 Running 0 13m coredns-86c58d9df4-4l6b2 1/1 Running 0 13m
Deploy the connectivity test¶
You can deploy the “connectivity-check” to test connectivity between pods. It is recommended to create a separate namespace for this.
kubectl create ns cilium-test
Deploy the check with:
kubectl apply -n cilium-test -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/cilium/cilium/v1.9/examples/kubernetes/connectivity-check/connectivity-check.yaml
It will deploy a series of deployments which will use various connectivity paths to connect to each other. Connectivity paths include with and without service load-balancing and various network policy combinations. The pod name indicates the connectivity variant and the readiness and liveness gate indicates success or failure of the test:
$ kubectl get pods -n cilium-test NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE echo-a-76c5d9bd76-q8d99 1/1 Running 0 66s echo-b-795c4b4f76-9wrrx 1/1 Running 0 66s echo-b-host-6b7fc94b7c-xtsff 1/1 Running 0 66s host-to-b-multi-node-clusterip-85476cd779-bpg4b 1/1 Running 0 66s host-to-b-multi-node-headless-dc6c44cb5-8jdz8 1/1 Running 0 65s pod-to-a-79546bc469-rl2qq 1/1 Running 0 66s pod-to-a-allowed-cnp-58b7f7fb8f-lkq7p 1/1 Running 0 66s pod-to-a-denied-cnp-6967cb6f7f-7h9fn 1/1 Running 0 66s pod-to-b-intra-node-nodeport-9b487cf89-6ptrt 1/1 Running 0 65s pod-to-b-multi-node-clusterip-7db5dfdcf7-jkjpw 1/1 Running 0 66s pod-to-b-multi-node-headless-7d44b85d69-mtscc 1/1 Running 0 66s pod-to-b-multi-node-nodeport-7ffc76db7c-rrw82 1/1 Running 0 65s pod-to-external-1111-d56f47579-d79dz 1/1 Running 0 66s pod-to-external-fqdn-allow-google-cnp-78986f4bcf-btjn7 1/1 Running 0 66s
If you deploy the connectivity check to a single node cluster, pods that check multi-node
functionalities will remain in the
Pending state. This is expected since these pods
need at least 2 nodes to be scheduled successfully.
Specify Environment Variables¶
Specify the namespace in which Cilium is installed as
environment variable. Subsequent commands reference this environment variable.
Enable Hubble for Cluster-Wide Visibility¶
Hubble is the component for observability in Cilium. To obtain cluster-wide visibility into your network traffic, deploy Hubble Relay and the UI as follows on your existing installation:
Once the Hubble UI pod is started, use port forwarding for the
service. This allows opening the UI locally on a browser:
kubectl port-forward -n $CILIUM_NAMESPACE svc/hubble-ui --address 0.0.0.0 --address :: 12000:80
And then open http://localhost:12000/ to access the UI.
Hubble UI is not the only way to get access to Hubble data. A command line tool, the Hubble CLI, is also available. It can be installed by following the instructions below:
Similarly to the UI, use port forwarding for the
hubble-relay service to
make it available locally:
kubectl port-forward -n $CILIUM_NAMESPACE svc/hubble-relay --address 0.0.0.0 --address :: 4245:80
In a separate terminal window, run the
hubble status command specifying the
Hubble Relay address:
$ hubble --server localhost:4245 status Healthcheck (via localhost:4245): Ok Current/Max Flows: 5455/16384 (33.29%) Flows/s: 11.30 Connected Nodes: 4/4
If Hubble Relay reports that all nodes are connected, as in the example output above, you can now use the CLI to observe flows of the entire cluster:
hubble --server localhost:4245 observe
If you encounter any problem at this point, you may seek help on Slack.
Hubble CLI configuration can be persisted using a configuration file or
environment variables. This avoids having to specify options specific to a
particular environment every time a command is run. Run
config for more information.
For more information about Hubble and its components, see the Observability section.
Now that you have a Kubernetes cluster with Cilium up and running, you can take a couple of next steps to explore various capabilities: