BPF and XDP Reference Guide


This documentation section is targeted at developers and users who want to understand BPF and XDP in great technical depth. While reading this reference guide may help broaden your understanding of Cilium, it is not a requirement to use Cilium. Please refer to the Getting Started Guide and Architecture Guide for a higher level introduction.

BPF is a highly flexible and efficient virtual machine-like construct in the Linux kernel allowing to execute bytecode at various hook points in a safe manner. It is used in a number of Linux kernel subsystems, most prominently networking, tracing and security (e.g. sandboxing).

Although BPF exists since 1992, this document covers the extended Berkley Paket Filter (eBPF) version which has first appeared in Kernel 3.18 and renders the original version which is being referred to as “classic” BPF (cBPF) these days mostly obsolete. cBPF is known to many as being the packet filter language used by tcpdump. Nowadays, the Linux kernel runs eBPF only and loaded cBPF bytecode is transparently translated into an eBPF representation in the kernel before program execution. This documentation will generally refer to the term BPF unless explicit differences between eBPF and cBPF are being pointed out.

Even though the name Berkley Packet Filter hints at a packet filtering specific purpose, the instruction set is generic and flexible enough these days that there are many use cases for BPF apart from networking. See Further Reading for a list of projects which use BPF.

Cilium uses BPF heavily in its data path, see Architecture Guide for further information. The goal of this chapter is to provide a BPF reference guide in oder to gain understanding of BPF, its networking specific use including loading BPF programs with tc (traffic control) and XDP (eXpress Data Path), and to aid with developing Cilium’s BPF templates.

BPF Architecture

BPF does not define itself by only providing its instruction set, but also by offering further infrastructure around it such as maps which act as efficient key / value stores, helper functions to interact with and leverage kernel functionality, tail calls for calling into other BPF programs, security hardening primitives, a pseudo file system for pinning objects (maps, programs), and infrastructure for allowing BPF to be offloaded, for example, to a network card.

LLVM provides a BPF back end, so that tools like clang can be used to compile C into a BPF object file, which can then be loaded into the kernel. BPF is deeply tied to the Linux kernel and allows for full programmability without sacrificing native kernel performance.

Last but not least, also the kernel subsystems making use of BPF are part of BPF’s infrastructure. The two main subsystems discussed throughout this document are tc and XDP where BPF programs can be attached to. XDP BPF programs are attached at the earliest networking driver stage and trigger a run of the BPF program upon packet reception. By definition, this achieves the best possible packet processing performance since packets cannot get processed at an even earlier point in software. Driver support is necessary in order to use XDP BPF programs, though. However, tc BPF programs don’t need any driver support and can be attached to receive and transmit paths of any networking device, including virtual ones such as veth devices since they hook later in the kernel stack compared to XDP. Apart from tc and XDP programs, there are various other kernel subsystems as well which use BPF such as tracing (kprobes, uprobes, tracepoints, etc).

The following subsections provide further details on individual aspects of the BPF architecture.

Instruction Set

BPF is a general purpose RISC instruction set and was originally designed for the purpose of writing programs in a subset of C which can be compiled into BPF instructions through a compiler back end (e.g. LLVM), so that the kernel can later on map them through an in-kernel JIT compiler into native opcodes for optimal execution performance inside the kernel.

The advantages for pushing these instructions into the kernel include:

  • Making the kernel programmable without having to cross kernel / user space boundaries. For example, BPF programs related to networking, as in the case of Cilium, can implement flexible container policies, load balancing and other means without having to move packets to user space and back into the kernel. State between BPF programs and kernel / user space can still be shared through maps whenever needed.
  • Given the flexibility of a programmable data path, programs can be heavily optimized for performance also by compiling out features that are not required for the use cases the program solves. For example, if a container does not require IPv4, then the BPF program can be built to only deal with IPv6 in order to save resources in the fast-path.
  • In case of networking (e.g. tc and XDP), BPF programs can be updated atomically without having to restart the kernel, system services or containers, and without traffic interruptions. Furthermore, any program state can also be maintained throughout updates via BPF maps.
  • BPF provides a stable ABI towards user space, and does not require any third party kernel modules. BPF is a core part of the Linux kernel that is shipped everywhere, and guarantees that existing BPF programs keep running with newer kernel versions. This guarantee is the same guarantee that the kernel provides for system calls with regard to user space applications.
  • BPF programs work in concert with the kernel, they make use of existing kernel infrastructure (e.g. drivers, netdevices, tunnels, protocol stack, sockets) and tooling (e.g. iproute2) as well as the safety guarantees which the kernel provides. Unlike kernel modules, BPF programs are verified through an in-kernel verifier in order to ensure that they cannot crash the kernel, always terminate, etc. XDP programs, for example, reuse the existing in-kernel drivers and operate on the provided DMA buffers containing the packet frames without exposing them or an entire driver to user space as in other models. Moreover, XDP programs reuse the existing stack instead of bypassing it. BPF can be considered a generic “glue code” to kernel facilities for crafting programs to solve specific use cases.

The execution of a BPF program inside the kernel is always event driven! For example, a networking device which has a BPF program attached on its ingress path will trigger the execution of the program once a packet is received, a kernel address which has a kprobes with a BPF program attached will trap once the code at that address gets executed, then invoke the kprobes callback function for instrumentation which subsequently triggers the execution of the BPF program attached to it.

BPF consists of eleven 64 bit registers with 32 bit subregisters, a program counter and a 512 byte large BPF stack space. Registers are named r0 - r10. The operating mode is 64 bit by default, the 32 bit subregisters can only be accessed through special ALU (arithmetic logic unit) operations. The 32 bit lower subregisters zero-extend into 64 bit when they are being written to.

Register r10 is the only register which is read-only and contains the frame pointer address in order to access the BPF stack space. The remaining r0 - r9 registers are general purpose and of read/write nature.

A BPF program can call into a predefined helper function, which is defined by the core kernel (never by modules). The BPF calling convention is defined as follows:

  • r0 contains the return value of a helper function call.
  • r1 - r5 hold arguments from the BPF program to the kernel helper function.
  • r6 - r9 are callee saved registers that will be preserved on helper function call.

The BPF calling convention is generic enough to map directly to x86_64, arm64 and other ABIs, thus all BPF registers map one to one to HW CPU registers, so that a JIT only needs to issue a call instruction, but no additional extra moves for placing function arguments. This calling convention was modeled to cover common call situations without having a performance penalty. Calls with 6 or more arguments are currently not supported. The helper functions in the kernel which are dedicated to BPF (BPF_CALL_0() to BPF_CALL_5() functions) are specifically designed with this convention in mind.

Register r0 is also the register containing the exit value for the BPF program. The semantics of the exit value are defined by the type of program. Furthermore, when handing execution back to the kernel, the exit value is passed as a 32 bit value.

Registers r1 - r5 are scratch registers, meaning the BPF program needs to either spill them to the BPF stack or move them to callee saved registers if these arguments are to be reused across multiple helper function calls. Spilling means that the variable in the register is moved to the BPF stack. The reverse operation of moving the variable from the BPF stack to the register is called filling. The reason for spilling/filling is due to the limited number of registers.

Upon entering execution of a BPF program, register r1 initially contains the context for the program. The context is the input argument for the program (similar to argc/argv pair for a typical C program). BPF is restricted to work on a single context. The context is defined by the program type, for example, a networking program can have a kernel representation of the network packet (skb) as the input argument.

The general operation of BPF is 64 bit to follow the natural model of 64 bit architectures in order to perform pointer arithmetics, pass pointers but also pass 64 bit values into helper functions, and to allow for 64 bit atomic operations.

The maximum instruction limit per program is restricted to 4096 BPF instructions, which, by design, means that any program will terminate quickly. Although the instruction set contains forward as well as backward jumps, the in-kernel BPF verifier will forbid loops so that termination is always guaranteed. Since BPF programs run inside the kernel, the verifier’s job is to make sure that these are safe to run, not affecting the system’s stability. This means that from an instruction set point of view, loops can be implemented, but the verifier will restrict that. However, there is also a concept of tail calls that allows for one BPF program to jump into another one. This, too, comes with an upper nesting limit of 32 calls, and is usually used to decouple parts of the program logic, for example, into stages.

The instruction format is modeled as two operand instructions, which helps mapping BPF instructions to native instructions during JIT phase. The instruction set is of fixed size, meaning every instruction has 64 bit encoding. Currently, 87 instructions have been implemented and the encoding also allows to extend the set with further instructions when needed. The instruction encoding of a single 64 bit instruction is defined as a bit sequence from most significant bit (MSB) to least significant bit (LSB) of op:8, dst_reg:4, src_reg:4, off:16, imm:32. off and imm is of signed type. The encodings are part of the kernel headers and defined in linux/bpf.h header, which also includes linux/bpf_common.h.

op defines the actual operation to be performed. Most of the encoding for op has been reused from cBPF. The operation can be based on register or immediate operands. The encoding of op itself provides information on which mode to use (BPF_X for denoting register-based operations, and BPF_K for immediate-based operations respectively). In the latter case, the destination operand is always a register. Both dst_reg and src_reg provide additional information about the register operands to be used (e.g. r0 - r9) for the operation. off is used in some instructions to provide a relative offset, for example, for addressing the stack or other buffers available to BPF (e.g. map values, packet data, etc), or jump targets in jump instructions. imm contains a constant / immediate value.

The available op instructions can be categorized into various instruction classes. These classes are also encoded inside the op field. The op field is divided into (from MSB to LSB) code:4, source:1 and class:3. class is the more generic instruction class, code denotes a specific operational code inside that class, and source tells whether the source operand is a register or an immediate value. Possible instruction classes include:

  • BPF_LD, BPF_LDX: Both classes are for load operations. BPF_LD is used for loading a double word as a special instruction spanning two instructions due to the imm:32 split, and for byte / half-word / word loads of packet data. The latter was carried over from cBPF mainly in order to keep cBPF to BPF translations efficient, since they have optimized JIT code. For native BPF these packet load instructions are less relevant nowadays. BPF_LDX class holds instructions for byte / half-word / word / double-word loads out of memory. Memory in this context is generic and could be stack memory, map value data, packet data, etc.
  • BPF_ST, BPF_STX: Both classes are for store operations. Similar to BPF_LDX the BPF_STX is the store counterpart and is used to store the data from a register into memory, which, again, can be stack memory, map value, packet data, etc. BPF_STX also holds special instructions for performing word and double-word based atomic add operations, which can be used for counters, for example. The BPF_ST class is similar to BPF_STX by providing instructions for storing data into memory only that the source operand is an immediate value.
  • BPF_ALU, BPF_ALU64: Both classes contain ALU operations. Generally, BPF_ALU operations are in 32 bit mode and BPF_ALU64 in 64 bit mode. Both ALU classes have basic operations with source operand which is register-based and an immediate-based counterpart. Supported by both are add (+), sub (-), and (&), or (|), left shift (<<), right shift (>>), xor (^), mul (*), div (/), mod (%), neg (~) operations. Also mov (<X> := <Y>) was added as a special ALU operation for both classes in both operand modes. BPF_ALU64 also contains a signed right shift. BPF_ALU additionally contains endianness conversion instructions for half-word / word / double-word on a given source register.
  • BPF_JMP: This class is dedicated to jump operations. Jumps can be unconditional and conditional. Unconditional jumps simply move the program counter forward, so that the next instruction to be executed relative to the current instruction is off + 1, where off is the constant offset encoded in the instruction. Since off is signed, the jump can also be performed backwards as long as it does not create a loop and is within program bounds. Conditional jumps operate on both, register-based and immediate-based source operands. If the condition in the jump operations results in true, then a relative jump to off + 1 is performed, otherwise the next instruction (0 + 1) is performed. This fall-through jump logic differs compared to cBPF and allows for better branch prediction as it fits the CPU branch predictor logic more naturally. Available conditions are jeq (==), jne (!=), jgt (>), jge (>=), jsgt (signed >), jsge (signed >=), jset (jump if DST & SRC). Apart from that, there are three special jump operations within this class: the exit instruction which will leave the BPF program and return the current value in r0 as a return code, the call instruction, which will issue a function call into one of the available BPF helper functions, and a hidden tail call instruction, which will jump into a different BPF program.

The Linux kernel is shipped with a BPF interpreter which executes programs assembled in BPF instructions. Even cBPF programs are translated into eBPF programs transparently in the kernel, except for architectures that still ship with a cBPF JIT and have not yet migrated to an eBPF JIT.

Currently x86_64, arm64, ppc64, s390x and sparc64 architectures come with an in-kernel eBPF JIT compiler.

All BPF handling such as loading of programs into the kernel or creation of BPF maps is managed through a central bpf() system call. It is also used for managing map entries (lookup / update / delete), and making programs as well as maps persistent in the BPF file system through pinning.

Helper Functions

Helper functions are a concept which enables BPF programs to consult a core kernel defined set of function calls in order to retrieve / push data from / to the kernel. Available helper functions may differ for each BPF program type, for example, BPF programs attached to sockets are only allowed to call into a subset of helpers compared to BPF programs attached to the tc layer. Encapsulation and decapsulation helpers for lightweight tunneling constitute an example of functions which are only available to lower tc layers, whereas event output helpers for pushing notifications to user space are available to tc and XDP programs.

Each helper function is implemented with a commonly shared function signature similar to system calls. The signature is defined as:

u64 fn(u64 r1, u64 r2, u64 r3, u64 r4, u64 r5)

The calling convention as described in the previous section applies to all BPF helper functions.

The kernel abstracts helper functions into macros BPF_CALL_0() to BPF_CALL_5() which are similar to those of system calls. The following example is an extract from a helper function which updates map elements by calling into the corresponding map implementation callbacks:

BPF_CALL_4(bpf_map_update_elem, struct bpf_map *, map, void *, key,
           void *, value, u64, flags)
    return map->ops->map_update_elem(map, key, value, flags);

const struct bpf_func_proto bpf_map_update_elem_proto = {
    .func           = bpf_map_update_elem,
    .gpl_only       = false,
    .ret_type       = RET_INTEGER,
    .arg1_type      = ARG_CONST_MAP_PTR,
    .arg2_type      = ARG_PTR_TO_MAP_KEY,
    .arg3_type      = ARG_PTR_TO_MAP_VALUE,
    .arg4_type      = ARG_ANYTHING,

There are various advantages of this approach: while cBPF overloaded its load instructions in order to fetch data at an impossible packet offset to invoke auxiliary helper functions, each cBPF JIT needed to implement support for such a cBPF extension. In case of eBPF, each newly added helper function will be JIT compiled in a transparent and efficient way, meaning that the JIT compiler only needs to emit a call instruction since the register mapping is made in such a way that BPF register assignments already match the underlying architecture’s calling convention. This allows for easily extending the core kernel with new helper functionality.

The aforementioned function signature also allows the verifier to perform type checks. The above struct bpf_func_proto is used to hand all the necessary information which need to be known about the helper to the verifier, so that the verifier can make sure that the expected types from the helper match the current contents of the BPF program’s analyzed registers.

Argument types can range from passing in any kind of value up to restricted contents such as a pointer / size pair for the BPF stack buffer, which the helper should read from or write to. In the latter case, the verifier can also perform additional checks, for example, whether the buffer was previously initialized.


Maps are efficient key / value stores that reside in kernel space. They can be accessed from a BPF program in order to keep state among multiple BPF program invocations. They can also be accessed through file descriptors from user space and can be arbitrarily shared with other BPF programs or user space applications.

BPF programs which share maps with each other are not required to be of the same program type, for example, tracing programs can share maps with networking programs. A single BPF program can currently access up to 64 different maps directly.

Map implementations are provided by the core kernel. There are generic maps with per-CPU and non-per-CPU flavor that can read / write arbitrary data, but there are also a few non-generic maps that are used along with helper functions.

Generic maps currently available:


Non-generic maps currently in the kernel:


TODO: further coverage of maps and their purpose

Object Pinning

BPF maps and programs act as a kernel resource and can only be accessed through file descriptors, backed by anonymous inodes in the kernel. Advantages, but also a number of disadvantages come along with them:

User space applications can make use of most file descriptor related APIs, file descriptor passing for Unix domain sockets work transparently, etc, but at the same time, file descriptors are limited to a processes’ lifetime, which makes options like map sharing rather cumbersome to carry out.

Thus, it brings a number of complications for certain use cases such as iproute2, where tc or XDP sets up and loads the program into the kernel and terminates itself eventually. With that, also access to maps is unavailable from user space side, where it could otherwise be useful, for example, when maps are shared between ingress and egress locations of the data path. Also, third party applications may wish to monitor or update map contents during BPF program runtime.

To overcome this limitation, a minimal kernel space BPF file system has been implemented, where BPF map and programs can be pinned to, a process called object pinning. The BPF system call has therefore been extended with two new commands which can pin (BPF_OBJ_PIN) or retrieve (BPF_OBJ_GET) a previously pinned object.

For instance, tools such as tc make use of this infrastructure for sharing maps on ingress and egress. The BPF related file system is not a singleton, it does support multiple mount instances, hard and soft links, etc.

Tail Calls

Another concept that can be used with BPF is called tail calls. Tail calls can be seen as a mechanism that allows one BPF program to call another, without returning back to the old program. Such a call has minimal overhead as unlike function calls, it is implemented as a long jump, reusing the same stack frame.

Such programs are verified independently of each other, thus for transferring state, either per-CPU maps as scratch buffers or in case of tc programs, skb fields such as the cb[] area must be used.

Only programs of the same type can be tail called, and they also need to match in terms of JIT compilation, thus either JIT compiled or only interpreted programs can be invoked, but not mixed together.

There are two components involved for carrying out tail calls: the first part needs to setup a specialized map called program array (BPF_MAP_TYPE_PROG_ARRAY) that can be populated by user space with key / values, where values are the file descriptors of the tail called BPF programs, the second part is a bpf_tail_call() helper where the context, a reference to the program array and the lookup key is passed to. Then the kernel inlines this helper call directly into a specialized BPF instruction. Such a program array is currently write-only from user space side.

The kernel looks up the related BPF program from the passed file descriptor and atomically replaces program pointers at the given map slot. When no map entry has been found at the provided key, the kernel will just “fall through” and continue execution of the old program with the instructions following after the bpf_tail_call(). Tail calls are a powerful utility, for example, parsing network headers could be structured through tail calls. During runtime, functionality can be added or replaced atomically, and thus altering the BPF program’s execution behaviour.


The 64 bit x86_64, arm64, ppc64, s390x and sparc64 architectures are all shipped with an in-kernel eBPF JIT compiler (mips64 is work in progress at this time), also all of them are feature equivalent and can be enabled through:

# echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/core/bpf_jit_enable

The 32 bit arm, mips, ppc and sparc architectures currently have a cBPF JIT compiler. The mentioned architectures still having a cBPF JIT as well as all remaining architectures supported by the Linux kernel which do not have a BPF JIT compiler at all need to run eBPF programs through the in-kernel interpreter.

In the kernel’s source tree, eBPF JIT support can be easily determined through issuing a grep for HAVE_EBPF_JIT:

# git grep HAVE_EBPF_JIT arch/
arch/arm64/Kconfig:     select HAVE_EBPF_JIT
arch/powerpc/Kconfig:   select HAVE_EBPF_JIT   if PPC64
arch/s390/Kconfig:      select HAVE_EBPF_JIT   if PACK_STACK && HAVE_MARCH_Z196_FEATURES
arch/sparc/Kconfig:     select HAVE_EBPF_JIT   if SPARC64
arch/x86/Kconfig:       select HAVE_EBPF_JIT   if X86_64


BPF locks the entire BPF interpreter image (struct bpf_prog) as well as the JIT compiled image (struct bpf_binary_header) in the kernel as read-only during the program’s lifetime in order to prevent the code from potential corruptions. Any corruption happening at that point, for example, due to some kernel bugs will result in a general protection fault and thus crash the kernel instead of allowing the corruption to happen silently.

Architectures that support setting the image memory as read-only can be determined through:

$ git grep ARCH_HAS_SET_MEMORY | grep select
arch/arm/Kconfig:    select ARCH_HAS_SET_MEMORY
arch/arm64/Kconfig:  select ARCH_HAS_SET_MEMORY
arch/s390/Kconfig:   select ARCH_HAS_SET_MEMORY
arch/x86/Kconfig:    select ARCH_HAS_SET_MEMORY

The option CONFIG_ARCH_HAS_SET_MEMORY is not configurable, thanks to which this protection is always built-in. Other architectures might follow in the future.

In case of /proc/sys/net/core/bpf_jit_harden set to 1 additional hardening steps for the JIT compilation take effect for unprivileged users. This effectively trades off their performance slightly by decreasing a (potential) attack surface in case of untrusted users operating on the system. The decrease in program execution still results in better performance compared to switching to interpreter entirely.

Currently, enabling hardening will blind all user provided 32 bit and 64 bit constants from the BPF program when it gets JIT compiled in order to prevent JIT spraying attacks which inject native opcodes as immediate values. This is problematic as these immediate values reside in executable kernel memory, therefore a jump that could be triggered from some kernel bug would jump to the start of the immediate value and then execute these as native instructions.

JIT constant blinding prevents this due to randomizing the actual instruction, which means the operation is transformed from an immediate based source operand to a register based one through rewriting the instruction by splitting the actual load of the value into two steps: 1) load of a blinded immediate value rnd ^ imm into a register, 2) xoring that register with rnd such that the original imm immediate then resides in the register and can be used for the actual operation. The example was provided for a load operation, but really all generic operations are blinded.

Example of JITing a program with hardening disabled:

# echo 0 > /proc/sys/net/core/bpf_jit_harden

  ffffffffa034f5e9 + <x>:
  39:   mov    $0xa8909090,%eax
  3e:   mov    $0xa8909090,%eax
  43:   mov    $0xa8ff3148,%eax
  48:   mov    $0xa89081b4,%eax
  4d:   mov    $0xa8900bb0,%eax
  52:   mov    $0xa810e0c1,%eax
  57:   mov    $0xa8908eb4,%eax
  5c:   mov    $0xa89020b0,%eax

The same program gets constant blinded when loaded through BPF as an unprivileged user in the case hardening is enabled:

# echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/core/bpf_jit_harden

  ffffffffa034f1e5 + <x>:
  39:   mov    $0xe1192563,%r10d
  3f:   xor    $0x4989b5f3,%r10d
  46:   mov    %r10d,%eax
  49:   mov    $0xb8296d93,%r10d
  4f:   xor    $0x10b9fd03,%r10d
  56:   mov    %r10d,%eax
  59:   mov    $0x8c381146,%r10d
  5f:   xor    $0x24c7200e,%r10d
  66:   mov    %r10d,%eax
  69:   mov    $0xeb2a830e,%r10d
  6f:   xor    $0x43ba02ba,%r10d
  76:   mov    %r10d,%eax
  79:   mov    $0xd9730af,%r10d
  7f:   xor    $0xa5073b1f,%r10d
  86:   mov    %r10d,%eax
  89:   mov    $0x9a45662b,%r10d
  8f:   xor    $0x325586ea,%r10d
  96:   mov    %r10d,%eax

Both programs are semantically the same, only that none of the original immediate values are visible anymore in the disassembly of the second program.

At the same time, hardening also disables any JIT kallsyms exposure for privileged users, preventing that JIT image addresses are not exposed to /proc/kallsyms anymore.


Networking programs in BPF, in particular for tc and XDP do have an offload-interface to hardware in the kernel in order to execute BPF code directly on the NIC.

Currently, the nfp driver from Netronome has support for offloading BPF through a JIT compiler which translates BPF instructions to an instruction set implemented against the NIC.


Current user space tooling, introspection facilities and kernel control knobs around BPF are discussed in this section. Note, the tooling and infrastructure around BPF is still rapidly evolving and thus may not provide a complete picture of all available tools.

Development Environment

A step by step guide for setting up a development environment for BPF can be found below for both Fedora and Ubuntu. This will guide you through building, installing and testing a development kernel as well as building and installing iproute2.

The step of building your own iproute2 and Linux kernel is usually not necessary given that major distributions already ship recent enough kernels by default, but would be needed for testing bleeding edge versions or contributing BPF patches to iproute2 and to the Linux kernel, respectively.


The following applies to Fedora 25 or later:

$ sudo dnf install -y git gcc ncurses-devel elfutils-libelf-devel bc \
  openssl-devel libcap-devel clang llvm


If you are running some other Fedora derivative and dnf is missing, try using yum instead.


The following applies to Ubuntu 17.04 or later:

$ sudo apt-get install -y make gcc libssl-dev bc libelf-dev libcap-dev \
  clang gcc-multilib llvm libncurses5-dev git

Compiling the Kernel

Development of new BPF features for the Linux kernel happens inside the net-next git tree, latest BPF fixes in the net tree. The following command will obtain the kernel source for the net-next tree through git:

$ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/davem/net-next.git

If the git commit history is not of interest, then --depth 1 will clone the tree much faster by truncating the git history only to the most recent commit.

In case the net tree is of interest, it can be cloned from this url:

$ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/davem/net.git

There are dozens of tutorials in the Internet on how to build Linux kernels, one good resource is the Kernel Newbies website (https://kernelnewbies.org/KernelBuild) that can be followed with one of the two git trees mentioned above.

Make sure that the generated .config file contains the following CONFIG_* entries for running BPF. These entries are also needed for Cilium.


Some of the entries cannot be adjusted through make menuconfig. For example, CONFIG_HAVE_EBPF_JIT is selected automatically if a given architecture does come with an eBPF JIT. In this specific case, CONFIG_HAVE_EBPF_JIT is optional but highly recommended. An architecture not having an eBPF JIT compiler will need to fall back to the in-kernel interpreter with the cost of being less efficient executing BPF instructions.

Verifying the Setup

After you have booted into the newly compiled kernel, navigate to the BPF selftest suite in order to test BPF functionality (current working directory points to the root of the cloned git tree):

$ cd tools/testing/selftests/bpf/
$ make
$ sudo ./test_verifier

The verifier tests print out all the current checks being performed. The summary at the end of running all tests will dump information of test successes and failures:

Summary: 418 PASSED, 0 FAILED

In order to run through all BPF selftests, the following command is needed:

$ sudo make run_tests

If you see any failures, please contact us on Slack with the full test output.

Compiling iproute2

Similar to the net (fixes only) and net-next (new features) kernel trees, the iproute2 git tree has two branches, namely master and net-next. The master branch is based on the net tree and the net-next branch is based against the net-next kernel tree. This is necessary, so that changes in header files can be synchronized in the iproute2 tree.

In order to clone the iproute2 master branch, the following command can be used:

$ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/shemminger/iproute2.git

Similarly, to clone into mentioned net-next branch of iproute2, run the following:

$ git clone -b net-next git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/shemminger/iproute2.git

After that, proceed with the build and installation:

$ cd iproute2/
$ ./configure --prefix=/usr
TC schedulers
 ATM    no

libc has setns: yes
SELinux support: yes
ELF support: yes
libmnl support: no
Berkeley DB: no

docs: latex: no
 WARNING: no docs can be built from LaTeX files
 sgml2html: no
 WARNING: no HTML docs can be built from SGML
$ make
$ sudo make install

Ensure that the configure script shows ELF support: yes, so that iproute2 can process ELF files from LLVM’s BPF back end. libelf was listed in the instructions for installing the dependencies in case of Fedora and Ubuntu earlier.


LLVM is currently the only compiler suite providing a BPF back end. gcc does not support BPF at this point.

The BPF back end was merged into LLVM’s 3.7 release. Major distributions enable the BPF back end by default when they package LLVM, therefore installing clang and llvm is sufficient on most recent distributions to start compiling C into BPF object files.

The typical workflow is that BPF programs are written in C, compiled by LLVM into object / ELF files, which are parsed by user space BPF ELF loaders (such as iproute2 or others), and pushed into the kernel through the BPF system call. The kernel verifies the BPF instructions and JITs them, returning a new file descriptor for the program, which then can be attached to a subsystem (e.g. networking). If supported, the subsystem could then further offload the BPF program to hardware (e.g. NIC).

For LLVM, BPF target support can be checked, for example, through the following:

$ llc --version
LLVM (http://llvm.org/):
LLVM version 3.8.1
Optimized build.
Default target: x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu
Host CPU: skylake

Registered Targets:
  bpf        - BPF (host endian)
  bpfeb      - BPF (big endian)
  bpfel      - BPF (little endian)

By default, the bpf target uses the endianness of the CPU it compiles on, meaning that if the CPU’s endianness is little endian, the program is represented in little endian format as well, and if the CPU’s endianness is big endian, the program is represented in big endian. This also matches the runtime behavior of BPF, which is generic and uses the CPU’s endianness it runs on in order to not disadvantage architectures in any of the format.

For cross-compilation, the two targets bpfeb and bpfel were introduced, thanks to that BPF programs can be compiled on a node running in one endianness (e.g. little endian on x86) and run on a node in another endianness format (e.g. big endian on arm). Note that the front end (clang) needs to run in the target endianness as well.

Using bpf as a target is the preferred way in situations where no mixture of endianness applies. For example, compilation on x86_64 results in the same output for the targets bpf and bpfel due to being little endian, therefore scripts triggering a compilation also do not have to be endian aware.

A minimal, stand-alone XDP drop program might look like the following example (xdp-example.c):

#include <linux/bpf.h>

#ifndef __section
# define __section(NAME)                  \
   __attribute__((section(NAME), used))

int xdp_drop(struct xdp_md *ctx)
    return XDP_DROP;

char __license[] __section("license") = "GPL";

It can then be compiled and loaded into the kernel as follows:

$ clang -O2 -Wall -target bpf -c xdp-example.c -o xdp-example.o
# ip link set dev em1 xdp obj xdp-example.o

For the generated object file LLVM (>= 3.9) uses the official BPF machine value, that is, EM_BPF (decimal: 247 / hex: 0xf7). In this example, the program has been compiled with bpf target under x86_64, therefore LSB (as opposed to MSB) is shown regarding endianness:

$ file xdp-example.o
xdp-example.o: ELF 64-bit LSB relocatable, *unknown arch 0xf7* version 1 (SYSV), not stripped

readelf -a xdp-example.o will dump further information about the ELF file, which can sometimes be useful for introspecting generated section headers, relocation entries and the symbol table.

In the unlikely case where clang and LLVM need to be compiled from scratch, the following commands can be used:

$ git clone http://llvm.org/git/llvm.git
$ cd llvm/tools
$ git clone --depth 1 http://llvm.org/git/clang.git
$ cd ..; mkdir build; cd build
$ make -j $(getconf _NPROCESSORS_ONLN)

$ ./bin/llc --version
LLVM (http://llvm.org/):
LLVM version x.y.zsvn
Optimized build.
Default target: x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu
Host CPU: skylake

Registered Targets:
  bpf    - BPF (host endian)
  bpfeb  - BPF (big endian)
  bpfel  - BPF (little endian)
  x86    - 32-bit X86: Pentium-Pro and above
  x86-64 - 64-bit X86: EM64T and AMD64

$ export PATH=$PWD/bin:$PATH   # add to ~/.bashrc

Make sure that --version mentions Optimized build., otherwise the compilation time for programs when having LLVM in debugging mode will significantly increase (e.g. by 10x or more).

For debugging, clang can generate the assembler output as follows:

$ clang -O2 -S -Wall -target bpf -c xdp-example.c -o xdp-example.S
$ cat xdp-example.S
    .section    prog,"ax",@progbits
    .globl      xdp_drop
    .p2align    3
xdp_drop:                             # @xdp_drop
# BB#0:
    r0 = 1

    .section    license,"aw",@progbits
    .globl    __license               # @__license
    .asciz    "GPL"

Furthermore, more recent LLVM versions (>= 4.0) can also store debugging information in dwarf format into the object file. This can be done through the usual workflow by adding -g for compilation.

$ clang -O2 -g -Wall -target bpf -c xdp-example.c -o xdp-example.o
$ llvm-objdump -S -no-show-raw-insn xdp-example.o

xdp-example.o:        file format ELF64-BPF

Disassembly of section prog:
; {
    0:        r0 = 1
; return XDP_DROP;
    1:        exit

The llvm-objdump tool can then annotate the assembler output with the original C code used in the compilation. The trivial example in this case does not contain much C code, however, the line numbers shown as 0: and 1: correspond directly to the kernel’s verifier log.

This means that in case BPF programs get rejected by the verifier, llvm-objdump can help to correlate the instructions back to the original C code, which is highly useful for analysis.

# ip link set dev em1 xdp obj xdp-example.o verb

Prog section 'prog' loaded (5)!
 - Type:         6
 - Instructions: 2 (0 over limit)
 - License:      GPL

Verifier analysis:

0: (b7) r0 = 1
1: (95) exit
processed 2 insns

As it can be seen in the verifier analysis, the llvm-objdump output dumps the same BPF assembler code as the kernel.

Leaving out the -no-show-raw-insn option will also dump the raw struct bpf_insn as hex in front of the assembly:

$ llvm-objdump -S xdp-example.o

xdp-example.o:        file format ELF64-BPF

Disassembly of section prog:
; {
   0:       b7 00 00 00 01 00 00 00     r0 = 1
; return foo();
   1:       95 00 00 00 00 00 00 00     exit

For LLVM IR debugging, the compilation process for BPF can be split into two steps, generating a binary LLVM IR intermediate file xdp-example.bc, which can later on be passed to llc:

$ clang -O2 -Wall -emit-llvm -c xdp-example.c -o xdp-example.bc
$ llc xdp-example.bc -march=bpf -filetype=obj -o xdp-example.o

The generated LLVM IR can also be dumped in human readable format through:

$ clang -O2 -Wall -emit-llvm -S -c xdp-example.c -o -

Note that LLVM’s BPF back end currently does not support generating code that makes use of BPF’s 32 bit subregisters. Inline assembly for BPF is currently unsupported, too.

Furthermore, compilation from BPF assembly (e.g. llvm-mc xdp-example.S -arch bpf -filetype=obj -o xdp-example.o) is currently not supported either due to missing BPF assembly parser.

When writing C programs for BPF, there are a couple of pitfalls to be aware of, compared to usual application development with C. The following items describe some of the differences for the BPF model:

  1. Everything needs to be inlined, there are no function or shared library calls available.

    Shared libraries, etc cannot be used with BPF. However, common library code used in BPF programs can be placed into header files and included in the main programs. For example, Cilium makes heavy use of it (see bpf/lib/). However, this still allows for including header files, for example, from the kernel or other libraries and reuse their static inline functions or macros / definitions.

    Eventually LLVM needs to compile the entire code into a flat sequence of BPF instructions for a given program section. Best practice is to use an annotation like __inline for every library function as shown below. The use of always_inline is recommended, since the compiler could still decide to uninline large functions that are only annotated as inline.

    In case the latter happens, LLVM will generate a relocation entry into the ELF file, which BPF ELF loaders such as iproute2 cannot resolve and will thus produce an error since only BPF maps are valid relocation entries which loaders can process.

    #include <linux/bpf.h>
    #ifndef __section
    # define __section(NAME)                  \
       __attribute__((section(NAME), used))
    #ifndef __inline
    # define __inline                         \
       inline __attribute__((always_inline))
    static __inline int foo(void)
        return XDP_DROP;
    int xdp_drop(struct xdp_md *ctx)
        return foo();
    char __license[] __section("license") = "GPL";
  2. Multiple programs can reside inside a single C file in different sections.

    C programs for BPF make heavy use of section annotations. A C file is typically structured into 3 or more sections. BPF ELF loaders use these names to extract and prepare the relevant information in order to load the programs and maps through the bpf system call. For example, iproute2 uses maps and license as default section name to find metadata needed for map creation and the license for the BPF program, respectively. On program creation time the latter is pushed into the kernel as well, and enables some of the helper functions which are exposed as GPL only in case the program also holds a GPL compatible license, for example bpf_ktime_get_ns(), bpf_probe_read() and others.

    The remaining section names are specific for BPF program code, for example, the below code has been modified to contain two program sections, ingress and egress. The toy example code demonstrates that both can share a map and common static inline helpers such as the account_data() function.

    The xdp-example.c example has been modified to a tc-example.c example that can be loaded with tc and attached to a netdevice’s ingress and egress hook. It accounts the transferred bytes into a map called acc_map, which has two map slots, one for traffic accounted on the ingress hook, one on the egress hook.

    #include <linux/bpf.h>
    #include <linux/pkt_cls.h>
    #include <stdint.h>
    #include <iproute2/bpf_elf.h>
    #ifndef __section
    # define __section(NAME)                  \
       __attribute__((section(NAME), used))
    #ifndef __inline
    # define __inline                         \
       inline __attribute__((always_inline))
    #ifndef lock_xadd
    # define lock_xadd(ptr, val)              \
       ((void)__sync_fetch_and_add(ptr, val))
    #ifndef BPF_FUNC
    # define BPF_FUNC(NAME, ...)              \
       (*NAME)(__VA_ARGS__) = (void *)BPF_FUNC_##NAME
    static void *BPF_FUNC(map_lookup_elem, void *map, const void *key);
    struct bpf_elf_map acc_map __section("maps") = {
        .type           = BPF_MAP_TYPE_ARRAY,
        .size_key       = sizeof(uint32_t),
        .size_value     = sizeof(uint32_t),
        .pinning        = PIN_GLOBAL_NS,
        .max_elem       = 2,
    static __inline int account_data(struct __sk_buff *skb, uint32_t dir)
        uint32_t *bytes;
        bytes = map_lookup_elem(&acc_map, &dir);
        if (bytes)
                lock_xadd(bytes, skb->len);
        return TC_ACT_OK;
    int tc_ingress(struct __sk_buff *skb)
        return account_data(skb, 0);
    int tc_egress(struct __sk_buff *skb)
        return account_data(skb, 1);
    char __license[] __section("license") = "GPL";

The example also demonstrates a couple of other things which are useful to be aware of when developing programs. The code includes kernel headers, standard C headers and an iproute2 specific header containing the definition of struct bpf_elf_map. iproute2 has a common BPF ELF loader and as such the definition of struct bpf_elf_map is the very same for XDP and tc typed programs.

A struct bpf_elf_map entry defines a map in the program and contains all relevant information (such as key / value size, etc) needed to generate a map which is used from the two BPF programs. The structure must be placed into the maps section, so that the loader can find it. There can be multiple map declarations of this type with different variable names, but all must be annotated with __section("maps").

The struct bpf_elf_map is specific to iproute2. Different BPF ELF loaders can have different formats, for example, the libbpf in the kernel source tree, which is mainly used by perf, has a different specification. iproute2 guarantees backwards compatibility for struct bpf_elf_map. Cilium follows the iproute2 model.

The example also demonstrates how BPF helper functions are mapped into the C code and being used. Here, map_lookup_elem() is defined by mapping this function into the BPF_FUNC_map_lookup_elem enum value which is exposed as a helper in uapi/linux/bpf.h. When the program is later loaded into the kernel, the verifier checks whether the passed arguments are of the expected type and re-points the helper call into a real function call. Moreover, map_lookup_elem() also demonstrates how maps can be passed to BPF helper functions. Here, &acc_map from the maps section is passed as the first argument to map_lookup_elem().

Since the defined array map is global, the accounting needs to use an atomic operation, which is defined as lock_xadd(). LLVM maps __sync_fetch_and_add() as a built-in function to the BPF atomic add instruction, that is, BPF_STX | BPF_XADD | BPF_W for word sizes.

Last but not least, the struct bpf_elf_map tells that the map is to be pinned as PIN_GLOBAL_NS. This means that tc will pin the map into the BPF pseudo file system as a node. By default, it will be pinned to /sys/fs/bpf/tc/globals/acc_map for the given example. Due to the PIN_GLOBAL_NS, the map will be placed under /sys/fs/bpf/tc/globals/. globals acts as a global namespace that spans across object files. If the example used PIN_OBJECT_NS, then tc would create a directory that is local to the object file. For example, different C files with BPF code could have the same acc_map definition as above with a PIN_GLOBAL_NS pinning. In that case, the map will be shared among BPF programs originating from various object files. PIN_NONE would mean that the map is not placed into the BPF file system as a node, and as a result will not be accessible from user space after tc quits. It would also mean that tc creates two separate map instances for each program, since it cannot retrieve a previously pinned map under that name. The acc_map part from the mentioned path is the name of the map as specified in the source code.

Thus, upon loading of the ingress program, tc will find that no such map exists in the BPF file system and creates a new one. On success, the map will also be pinned, so that when the egress program is loaded through tc, it will find that such map already exists in the BPF file system and will reuse that for the egress program. The loader also makes sure in case maps exist with the same name that also their properties (key / value size, etc) match.

Just like tc can retrieve the same map, also third party applications can use the BPF_OBJ_GET command from the bpf system call in order to create a new file descriptor pointing to the same map instance, which can then be used to lookup / update / delete map elements.

The code can be compiled and loaded via iproute2 as follows:

$ clang -O2 -Wall -target bpf -c tc-example.c -o tc-example.o

# tc qdisc add dev em1 clsact
# tc filter add dev em1 ingress bpf da obj tc-example.o sec ingress
# tc filter add dev em1 egress bpf da obj tc-example.o sec egress

# tc filter show dev em1 ingress
filter protocol all pref 49152 bpf
filter protocol all pref 49152 bpf handle 0x1 tc-example.o:[ingress] direct-action tag c5f7825e5dac396f

# tc filter show dev em1 egress
filter protocol all pref 49152 bpf
filter protocol all pref 49152 bpf handle 0x1 tc-example.o:[egress] direct-action tag b2fd5adc0f262714

# mount | grep bpf
sysfs on /sys/fs/bpf type sysfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,seclabel)
bpf on /sys/fs/bpf type bpf (rw,relatime,mode=0700)

# tree /sys/fs/bpf/
+-- ip -> /sys/fs/bpf/tc/
+-- tc
|   +-- globals
|       +-- acc_map
+-- xdp -> /sys/fs/bpf/tc/

4 directories, 1 file

As soon as packets pass the em1 device, counters from the BPF map will be increased.

  1. There are no global variables allowed.

For the reasons already mentioned in point 1, BPF cannot have global variables as often used in normal C programs.

However, there is a work-around in that the program can simply use a BPF map of type BPF_MAP_TYPE_PERCPU_ARRAY with just a single slot of arbitrary value size. This works, because during execution, BPF programs are guaranteed to never get preempted by the kernel and therefore can use the single map entry as a scratch buffer for temporary data, for example, to extend beyond the stack limitation. This also functions across tail calls, since it has the same guarantees with regards to preemption.

Otherwise, for holding state across multiple BPF program runs, normal BPF maps can be used.

  1. There are no const strings or arrays allowed.

Defining const strings or other arrays in the BPF C program does not work for the same reasons as pointed out in sections 1 and 3, which is, that relocation entries will be generated in the ELF file which will be rejected by loaders due to not being part of the ABI towards loaders (loaders also cannot fix up such entries as it would require large rewrites of the already compiled BPF sequence).

In the future, LLVM might detect these occurrences and early throw an error to the user.

Helper functions such as trace_printk() can be worked around as follows:

static void BPF_FUNC(trace_printk, const char *fmt, int fmt_size, ...);

#ifndef printk
# define printk(fmt, ...)                                      \
    ({                                                         \
        char ____fmt[] = fmt;                                  \
        trace_printk(____fmt, sizeof(____fmt), ##__VA_ARGS__); \

The program can then use the macro naturally like printk("skb len:%u\n", skb->len);. The output will then be written to the trace pipe. tc exec bpf dbg can be used to retrieve the messages from there.

The use of the trace_printk() helper function has a couple of disadvantages and thus is not recommended for production usage. Constant strings like the "skb len:%u\n" need to be loaded into the BPF stack each time the helper function is called, but also BPF helper functions are limited to a maximum of 5 arguments. This leaves room for only 3 additional variables which can be passed for dumping.

Therefore, despite being helpful for quick debugging, it is recommended (for networking programs) to use the skb_event_output() or the xdp_event_output() helper, respectively. They allow for passing custom structs from the BPF program to the perf event ring buffer along with an optional packet sample. For example, Cilium’s monitor makes use of these helpers in order to implement a debugging framework, notifications for network policy violations, etc. These helpers pass the data through a lockless memory mapped per-CPU perf ring buffer, and is thus significantly faster than trace_printk().

  1. Use of LLVM built-in functions for memset()/memcpy()/memmove()/memcmp().

Since BPF programs cannot perform any function calls other than those to BPF helpers, common library code needs to be implemented as inline functions. In addition, also LLVM provides some built-ins that the programs can use for constant sizes (here: n) which will then always get inlined:

#ifndef memset
# define memset(dest, chr, n)   __builtin_memset((dest), (chr), (n))

#ifndef memcpy
# define memcpy(dest, src, n)   __builtin_memcpy((dest), (src), (n))

#ifndef memmove
# define memmove(dest, src, n)  __builtin_memmove((dest), (src), (n))

The memcmp() built-in had some corner cases where inlining did not take place due to an LLVM issue in the back end, and is therefore not recommended to be used until the issue is fixed.

  1. There are no loops available.

The BPF verifier in the kernel checks that a BPF program does not contain loops by performing a depth first search of all possible program paths besides other control flow graph validations. The purpose is to make sure that the program is always guaranteed to terminate.

A very limited form of looping is available for constant upper loop bounds by using #pragma unroll directive. Example code that is compiled to BPF:

#pragma unroll
    for (i = 0; i < IPV6_MAX_HEADERS; i++) {
        switch (nh) {
        case NEXTHDR_NONE:
            return DROP_INVALID_EXTHDR;
        case NEXTHDR_FRAGMENT:
            return DROP_FRAG_NOSUPPORT;
        case NEXTHDR_HOP:
        case NEXTHDR_ROUTING:
        case NEXTHDR_AUTH:
        case NEXTHDR_DEST:
            if (skb_load_bytes(skb, l3_off + len, &opthdr, sizeof(opthdr)) < 0)
                return DROP_INVALID;

            nh = opthdr.nexthdr;
            if (nh == NEXTHDR_AUTH)
                len += ipv6_authlen(&opthdr);
                len += ipv6_optlen(&opthdr);
            *nexthdr = nh;
            return len;

Another possibility is to use tail calls by calling into the same program again and using a BPF_MAP_TYPE_PERCPU_ARRAY map for having a local scratch space. While being dynamic, this form of looping however is limited to a maximum of 32 iterations.

In the future, BPF may have some native, but limited form of implementing loops.

  1. Partitioning programs with tail calls.

Tail calls provide the flexibility to atomically alter program behavior during runtime by jumping from one BPF program into another. In order to select the next program, tail calls make use of program array maps (BPF_MAP_TYPE_PROG_ARRAY), and pass the map as well as the index to the next program to jump to. There is no return to the old program after the jump has been performed, and in case there was no program present at the given map index, then execution continues on the original program.

For example, this can be used to implement various stages of a parser, where such stages could be updated with new parsing features during runtime.

Another use case are event notifications, for example, Cilium can opt in packet drop notifications during runtime, where the skb_event_output() call is located inside the tail called program. Thus, during normal operations, the fall-through path will always be executed unless a program is added to the related map index, where the program then prepares the metadata and triggers the event notification to a user space daemon.

Program array maps are quite flexible, enabling also individual actions to be implemented for programs located in each map index. For example, the root program attached to XDP or tc could perform an initial tail call to index 0 of the program array map, performing traffic sampling, then jumping to index 1 of the program array map, where firewalling policy is applied and the packet either dropped or further processed in index 2 of the program array map, where it is mangled and sent out of an interface again. Jumps in the program array map can, of course, be arbitrary. The kernel will eventually execute the fall-through path when the maximum tail call limit has been reached.

Minimal example extract of using tail calls:


#ifndef __stringify
# define __stringify(X)   #X

#ifndef __section
# define __section(NAME)                  \
   __attribute__((section(NAME), used))

#ifndef __section_tail
# define __section_tail(ID, KEY)          \
   __section(__stringify(ID) "/" __stringify(KEY))

#ifndef BPF_FUNC
# define BPF_FUNC(NAME, ...)              \
   (*NAME)(__VA_ARGS__) = (void *)BPF_FUNC_##NAME

#define BPF_JMP_MAP_ID   1

static void BPF_FUNC(tail_call, struct __sk_buff *skb, void *map,
                     uint32_t index);

struct bpf_elf_map jmp_map __section("maps") = {
    .type           = BPF_MAP_TYPE_PROG_ARRAY,
    .id             = BPF_JMP_MAP_ID,
    .size_key       = sizeof(uint32_t),
    .size_value     = sizeof(uint32_t),
    .pinning        = PIN_GLOBAL_NS,
    .max_elem       = 1,

__section_tail(JMP_MAP_ID, 0)
int looper(struct __sk_buff *skb)
    printk("skb cb: %u\n", skb->cb[0]++);
    tail_call(skb, &jmp_map, 0);
    return TC_ACT_OK;

int entry(struct __sk_buff *skb)
    skb->cb[0] = 0;
    tail_call(skb, &jmp_map, 0);
    return TC_ACT_OK;

char __license[] __section("license") = "GPL";

When loading this toy program, tc will create the program array and pin it to the BPF file system in the global namespace under jmp_map. Also, the BPF ELF loader in iproute2 will also recognize sections that are marked as __section_tail(). The provided id in struct bpf_elf_map will be matched against the id marker in the __section_tail(), that is, JMP_MAP_ID, and the program therefore loaded at the user specified program array map index, which is 0 in this example. As a result, all provided tail call sections will be populated by the iproute2 loader to the corresponding maps. This mechanism is not specific to tc, but can be applied with any other BPF program type that iproute2 supports (such as XDP, lwt).

The pinned map can be retrieved by a user space applications (e.g. Cilium daemon), but also by tc itself in order to update the map with new programs. Updates happen atomically, the initial entry programs that are triggered first from the various subsystems are also updated atomically.

Example for tc to perform tail call map updates:

# tc exec bpf graft m:globals/jmp_map key 0 obj new.o sec foo

In case iproute2 would update the pinned program array, the graft command can be used. By pointing it to globals/jmp_map, tc will update the map at index / key 0 with a new program residing in the object file new.o under section foo.

  1. Limited stack space of 512 bytes.
Stack space in BPF programs is limited to only 512 bytes, which needs to be taken into careful consideration when implementing BPF programs in C. However, as mentioned earlier in point 3, a BPF_MAP_TYPE_PERCPU_ARRAY map with a single entry can be used in order to enlarge scratch buffer space.


There are various front ends for loading BPF programs into the kernel such as bcc, perf, iproute2 and others. The Linux kernel source tree also provides a user space library under tools/lib/bpf/, which is mainly used and driven by perf for loading BPF tracing programs into the kernel. However, the library itself is generic and not limited to perf only. bcc is a toolkit providing many useful BPF programs mainly for tracing that are loaded ad-hoc through a Python interface embedding the BPF C code. Syntax and semantics for implementing BPF programs slightly differ among front ends in general, though. Additionally, there are also BPF samples in the kernel source tree (samples/bpf/) which parse the generated object files and load the code directly through the system call interface.

This and previous sections mainly focus on the iproute2 suite’s BPF front end for loading networking programs of XDP, tc or lwt type, since Cilium’s programs are implemented against this BPF loader. In future, Cilium will be equipped with a native BPF loader, but programs will still be compatible to be loaded through iproute2 suite in order to facilitate development and debugging.

All BPF program types supported by iproute2 share the same BPF loader logic due to having a common loader back end implemented as a library (lib/bpf.c in iproute2 source tree).

The previous section on LLVM also covered some iproute2 parts related to writing BPF C programs, and later sections in this document are related to tc and XDP specific aspects when writing programs. Therefore, this section will rather focus on usage examples for loading object files with iproute2 as well as some of the generic mechanics of the loader. It does not try to provide a complete coverage of all details, but enough for getting started.

1. Loading of XDP BPF object files.

Given a BPF object file prog.o has been compiled for XDP, it can be loaded through ip to a XDP-supported netdevice called em1 with the following command:

# ip link set dev em1 xdp obj prog.o

The above command assumes that the program code resides in the default section which is called prog in XDP case. Should this not be the case, and the section is named differently, for example, foobar, then the program needs to be loaded as:

# ip link set dev em1 xdp obj prog.o sec foobar

By default, ip will throw an error in case a XDP program is already attached to the networking interface, to prevent it from being overridden by accident. In order to replace the currently running XDP program with a new one, the -force option must be used:

# ip -force link set dev em1 xdp obj prog.o

Most XDP-enabled drivers today support an atomic replacement of the existing program with a new one without traffic interruption. There is always only a single program attached to an XDP-enabled driver due to performance reasons, hence a chain of programs is not supported. However, as described in the previous section, partitioning of programs can be performed through tail calls to achieve a similar use case when necessary.

The ip link command will display an xdp flag if the interface has an XDP program attached. ip link | grep xdp can thus be used to find all interfaces that have XDP running. Further introspection facilities will be provided through the detailed view with ip -d link once the kernel API gains support for dumping additional attributes.

In order to remove the existing XDP program from the interface, the following command must be issued:

# ip link set dev em1 xdp off

2. Loading of tc BPF object files.

Given a BPF object file prog.o has been compiled for tc, it can be loaded through the tc command to a netdevice. Unlike XDP, there is no driver dependency for supporting attaching BPF programs to the device. Here, the netdevice is called em1, and with the following command the program can be attached to the networking ingress path of em1:

# tc qdisc add dev em1 clsact
# tc filter add dev em1 ingress bpf da obj prog.o

The first step is to set up a clsact qdisc (Linux queueing discipline). clsact is a dummy qdisc similar to the ingress qdisc, which can only hold classifier and actions, but does not perform actual queueing. It is needed in order to attach the bpf classifier. The clsact qdisc provides two special hooks called ingress and egress, where the classifier can be attached to. Both ingress and egress hooks are located in central receive and transmit locations in the networking data path, where every packet on the device passes through. The ingress hook is called from __netif_receive_skb_core() -> sch_handle_ingress() in the kernel and the egress hook from __dev_queue_xmit() -> sch_handle_egress().

The equivalent for attaching the program to the egress hook looks as follows:

# tc filter add dev em1 egress bpf da obj prog.o

The clsact qdisc is processed lockless from ingress and egress direction and can also be attached to virtual, queue-less devices such as veth devices connecting containers.

Next to the hook, the tc filter command selects bpf to be used in da (direct-action) mode. da mode is recommended and should always be specified. It basically means that the bpf classifier does not need to call into external tc action modules, which are not necessary for bpf anyway, since all packet mangling, forwarding or other kind of actions can already be performed inside the single BPF program which is to be attached, and is therefore significantly faster.

At this point, the program has been attached and is executed once packets traverse the device. Like in XDP, should the default section name not be used, then it can be specified during load, for example, in case of section foobar:

# tc filter add dev em1 egress bpf da obj prog.o sec foobar

iproute2’s BPF loader allows for using the same command line syntax across program types, hence the obj prog.o sec foobar is the same syntax as with XDP mentioned earlier.

The attached programs can be listed through the following commands:

# tc filter show dev em1 ingress
filter protocol all pref 49152 bpf
filter protocol all pref 49152 bpf handle 0x1 prog.o:[ingress] direct-action tag c5f7825e5dac396f

# tc filter show dev em1 egress
filter protocol all pref 49152 bpf
filter protocol all pref 49152 bpf handle 0x1 prog.o:[egress] direct-action tag b2fd5adc0f262714

The output of prog.o:[ingress] tells that program section ingress was loaded from the file prog.o, and bpf operates in direct-action mode. The program tags are appended for each, which denotes a hash over the instruction stream which can be used for debugging / introspection.

tc can attach more than just a single BPF program, it provides various other classifiers which can be chained together. However, attaching a single BPF program is fully sufficient since all packet operations can be contained in the program itself thanks to da (direct-action) mode. For optimal performance and flexibility, this is the recommended usage.

In the above show command, tc also displays pref 49152 and handle 0x1 next to the BPF related output. Both are auto-generated in case they are not explicitly provided through the command line. pref denotes a priority number, which means that in case multiple classifiers are attached, they will be executed based on ascending priority, and handle represents an identifier in case multiple instances of the same classifier have been loaded under the same pref. Since in case of BPF, a single program is fully sufficient, pref and handle can typically be ignored.

Only in the case where it is planned to atomically replace the attached BPF programs, it would be recommended to explicitly specify pref and handle a priori on initial load, so that they do not have to be queried at a later point in time for the replace operation. Thus, creation becomes:

# tc filter add dev em1 ingress pref 1 handle 1 bpf da obj prog.o sec foobar

# tc filter show dev em1 ingress
filter protocol all pref 1 bpf
filter protocol all pref 1 bpf handle 0x1 prog.o:[foobar] direct-action tag c5f7825e5dac396f

And for the atomic replacement, the following can be issued for updating the existing program at ingress hook with the new BPF program from the file prog.o in section foobar:

# tc filter replace dev em1 ingress pref 1 handle 1 bpf da obj prog.o sec foobar

Last but not least, in order to remove all attached programs from the ingress respectively egress hook, the following can be used:

# tc filter del dev em1 ingress
# tc filter del dev em1 egress

For removing the entire clsact qdisc from the netdevice, which implicitly also removes all attached programs from the ingress and egress hooks, the below command is provided:

# tc qdisc del dev em1 clsact

These two workflows are the basic operations to load XDP BPF respectively tc BPF programs with iproute2.

There are other various advanced options for the BPF loader that apply both to XDP and tc, some of them are listed here. In the examples only XDP is presented for simplicity.

1. Verbose log output even on success.

The option verb can be appended for loading programs in order to dump the verifier log, even if no error occurred:

# ip link set dev em1 xdp obj xdp-example.o verb

Prog section 'prog' loaded (5)!
 - Type:         6
 - Instructions: 2 (0 over limit)
 - License:      GPL

Verifier analysis:

0: (b7) r0 = 1
1: (95) exit
processed 2 insns

2. Load program that is already pinned in BPF file system.

Instead of loading a program from an object file, iproute2 can also retrieve the program from the BPF file system in case some external entity pinned it there and attach it to the device:

# ip link set dev em1 xdp pinned /sys/fs/bpf/prog

iproute2 can also use the short form that is relative to the detected mount point of the BPF file system:

# ip link set dev em1 xdp pinned m:prog

When loading BPF programs, iproute2 will automatically detect the mounted file system instance in order to perform pinning of nodes. In case no mounted BPF file system instance was found, then tc will automatically mount it to the default location under /sys/fs/bpf/.

In case an instance has already been found, then it will be used and no additional mount will be performed:

# mkdir /var/run/bpf
# mount --bind /var/run/bpf /var/run/bpf
# mount -t bpf bpf /var/run/bpf
# tc filter add dev em1 ingress bpf da obj tc-example.o sec prog
# tree /var/run/bpf
+-- ip -> /run/bpf/tc/
+-- tc
|   +-- globals
|       +-- jmp_map
+-- xdp -> /run/bpf/tc/

4 directories, 1 file

By default tc will create an initial directory structure as shown above, where all subsystem users will point to the same location through symbolic links for the globals namespace, so that pinned BPF maps can be reused among various BPF program types in iproute2. In case the file system instance has already been mounted and an existing structure already exists, then tc will not override it. This could be the case for separating lwt, tc and xdp maps in order to not share globals among all.

As briefly covered in the previous LLVM section, iproute2 will install a header file upon installation which can be included through the standard include path by BPF programs:

#include <iproute2/bpf_elf.h>

The purpose of this header file is to provide an API for maps and default section names used by programs. It’s a stable contract between iproute2 and BPF programs.

The map definition for iproute2 is struct bpf_elf_map. Its members have been covered earlier in the LLVM section of this document.

When parsing the BPF object file, the iproute2 loader will walk through all ELF sections. It initially fetches ancillary sections like maps and license. For maps, the struct bpf_elf_map array will be checked for validity and whenever needed, compatibility workarounds are performed. Subsequently all maps are created with the user provided information, either retrieved as a pinned object, or newly created and then pinned into the BPF file system. Next the loader will handle all program sections that contain ELF relocation entries for maps, meaning that BPF instructions loading map file descriptors into registers are rewritten so that the corresponding map file descriptors are encoded into the instructions immediate value, in order for the kernel to be able to convert them later on into map kernel pointers. After that all the programs themselves are created through the BPF system call, and tail called maps, if present, updated with the program’s file descriptors.

BPF sysctls

The Linux kernel provides few sysctls that are BPF related and covered in this section.

  • /proc/sys/net/core/bpf_jit_enable: Enables or disables the BPF JIT compiler.

    Value Description
    0 Disable the JIT and use only interpreter (kernel’s default value)
    1 Enable the JIT compiler
    2 Enable the JIT and emit debugging traces to the kernel log

    As described in subsequent sections, bpf_jit_disasm tool can be used to process debugging traces when the JIT compiler is set to debugging mode (option 2).

  • /proc/sys/net/core/bpf_jit_harden: Enables or disables BPF JIT hardening. Note that enabling hardening trades off performance, but can mitigate JIT spraying by blinding out the BPF program’s immediate values. For programs processed through the interpreter, blinding of immediate values is not needed / performed.

    Value Description
    0 Disable JIT hardening (kernel’s default value)
    1 Enable JIT hardening for unprivileged users only
    2 Enable JIT hardening for all users
  • /proc/sys/net/core/bpf_jit_kallsyms: Enables or disables export of JITed programs as kernel symbols to /proc/kallsyms so that they can be used together with perf tooling as well as making these addresses aware to the kernel for stack unwinding, for example, used in dumping stack traces. The symbol names contain the BPF program tag (bpf_prog_<tag>). If bpf_jit_harden is enabled, then this feature is disabled.

    Value Description
    0 Disable JIT kallsyms export (kernel’s default value)
    1 Enable JIT kallsyms export for privileged users only

Kernel Testing

The Linux kernel ships a BPF selftest suite, which can be found in the kernel source tree under tools/testing/selftests/bpf/.

$ cd tools/testing/selftests/bpf/
$ make
# make run_tests

The test suite contains test cases against the BPF verifier, program tags, various tests against the BPF map interface and map types. It contains various runtime tests from C code for checking LLVM back end, and eBPF as well as cBPF asm code that is run in the kernel for testing the interpreter and JITs.

JIT Debugging

For JIT developers performing audits or writing extensions, each compile run can output the generated JIT image into the kernel log through:

# echo 2 > /proc/sys/net/core/bpf_jit_enable

Whenever a new BPF program is loaded, the JIT compiler will dump the output, which can then be inspected with dmesg, for example:

[ 3389.935842] flen=6 proglen=70 pass=3 image=ffffffffa0069c8f from=tcpdump pid=20583
[ 3389.935847] JIT code: 00000000: 55 48 89 e5 48 83 ec 60 48 89 5d f8 44 8b 4f 68
[ 3389.935849] JIT code: 00000010: 44 2b 4f 6c 4c 8b 87 d8 00 00 00 be 0c 00 00 00
[ 3389.935850] JIT code: 00000020: e8 1d 94 ff e0 3d 00 08 00 00 75 16 be 17 00 00
[ 3389.935851] JIT code: 00000030: 00 e8 28 94 ff e0 83 f8 01 75 07 b8 ff ff 00 00
[ 3389.935852] JIT code: 00000040: eb 02 31 c0 c9 c3

flen is the length of the BPF program (here, 6 BPF instructions), and proglen tells the number of bytes generated by the JIT for the opcode image (here, 70 bytes in size). pass means that the image was generated in 3 compiler passes, for example, x86_64 can have various optimization passes to further reduce the image size when possible. image contains the address of the generated JIT image, from and pid the user space application name and PID respectively, which triggered the compilation process. The dump output for eBPF and cBPF JITs is the same format.

In the kernel tree under tools/net/, there is a tool called bpf_jit_disasm. It reads out the latest dump and prints the disassembly for further inspection:

# ./bpf_jit_disasm
70 bytes emitted from JIT compiler (pass:3, flen:6)
ffffffffa0069c8f + <x>:
   0:       push   %rbp
   1:       mov    %rsp,%rbp
   4:       sub    $0x60,%rsp
   8:       mov    %rbx,-0x8(%rbp)
   c:       mov    0x68(%rdi),%r9d
  10:       sub    0x6c(%rdi),%r9d
  14:       mov    0xd8(%rdi),%r8
  1b:       mov    $0xc,%esi
  20:       callq  0xffffffffe0ff9442
  25:       cmp    $0x800,%eax
  2a:       jne    0x0000000000000042
  2c:       mov    $0x17,%esi
  31:       callq  0xffffffffe0ff945e
  36:       cmp    $0x1,%eax
  39:       jne    0x0000000000000042
  3b:       mov    $0xffff,%eax
  40:       jmp    0x0000000000000044
  42:       xor    %eax,%eax
  44:       leaveq
  45:       retq

Alternatively, the tool can also dump related opcodes along with the disassembly.

# ./bpf_jit_disasm -o
70 bytes emitted from JIT compiler (pass:3, flen:6)
ffffffffa0069c8f + <x>:
   0:       push   %rbp
   1:       mov    %rsp,%rbp
    48 89 e5
   4:       sub    $0x60,%rsp
    48 83 ec 60
   8:       mov    %rbx,-0x8(%rbp)
    48 89 5d f8
   c:       mov    0x68(%rdi),%r9d
    44 8b 4f 68
  10:       sub    0x6c(%rdi),%r9d
    44 2b 4f 6c
  14:       mov    0xd8(%rdi),%r8
    4c 8b 87 d8 00 00 00
  1b:       mov    $0xc,%esi
    be 0c 00 00 00
  20:       callq  0xffffffffe0ff9442
    e8 1d 94 ff e0
  25:       cmp    $0x800,%eax
    3d 00 08 00 00
  2a:       jne    0x0000000000000042
    75 16
  2c:       mov    $0x17,%esi
    be 17 00 00 00
  31:       callq  0xffffffffe0ff945e
    e8 28 94 ff e0
  36:       cmp    $0x1,%eax
    83 f8 01
  39:       jne    0x0000000000000042
    75 07
  3b:       mov    $0xffff,%eax
    b8 ff ff 00 00
  40:       jmp    0x0000000000000044
    eb 02
  42:       xor    %eax,%eax
    31 c0
  44:       leaveq
  45:       retq

For performance analysis of JITed BPF programs, perf can be used as usual. As a prerequisite, JITed programs need to be exported through kallsyms infrastructure.

# echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/core/bpf_jit_enable
# echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/core/bpf_jit_kallsyms

Enabling or disabling bpf_jit_kallsyms does not require a reload of the related BPF programs. Next, a small workflow example is provided for profiling BPF programs. A crafted tc BPF program is used for demonstration purposes, where perf records a failed allocation inside bpf_clone_redirect() helper. Due to the use of direct write, bpf_try_make_head_writable() failed, which would then release the cloned skb again and return with an error message. perf thus records all kfree_skb events.

# tc qdisc add dev em1 clsact
# tc filter add dev em1 ingress bpf da obj prog.o sec main
# tc filter show dev em1 ingress
filter protocol all pref 49152 bpf
filter protocol all pref 49152 bpf handle 0x1 prog.o:[main] direct-action tag 8227addf251b7543

# cat /proc/kallsyms
ffffffffc00349e0 t fjes_hw_init_command_registers    [fjes]
ffffffffc003e2e0 d __tracepoint_fjes_hw_stop_debug_err    [fjes]
ffffffffc0036190 t fjes_hw_epbuf_tx_pkt_send    [fjes]
ffffffffc004b000 t bpf_prog_8227addf251b7543

# perf record -a -g -e skb:kfree_skb sleep 60
# perf script --kallsyms=/proc/kallsyms
ksoftirqd/0     6 [000]  1004.578402:    skb:kfree_skb: skbaddr=0xffff9d4161f20a00 protocol=2048 location=0xffffffffc004b52c
   7fffb8745961 bpf_clone_redirect (/lib/modules/4.10.0+/build/vmlinux)
   7fffc004e52c bpf_prog_8227addf251b7543 (/lib/modules/4.10.0+/build/vmlinux)
   7fffc05b6283 cls_bpf_classify (/lib/modules/4.10.0+/build/vmlinux)
   7fffb875957a tc_classify (/lib/modules/4.10.0+/build/vmlinux)
   7fffb8729840 __netif_receive_skb_core (/lib/modules/4.10.0+/build/vmlinux)
   7fffb8729e38 __netif_receive_skb (/lib/modules/4.10.0+/build/vmlinux)
   7fffb872ae05 process_backlog (/lib/modules/4.10.0+/build/vmlinux)
   7fffb872a43e net_rx_action (/lib/modules/4.10.0+/build/vmlinux)
   7fffb886176c __do_softirq (/lib/modules/4.10.0+/build/vmlinux)
   7fffb80ac5b9 run_ksoftirqd (/lib/modules/4.10.0+/build/vmlinux)
   7fffb80ca7fa smpboot_thread_fn (/lib/modules/4.10.0+/build/vmlinux)
   7fffb80c6831 kthread (/lib/modules/4.10.0+/build/vmlinux)
   7fffb885e09c ret_from_fork (/lib/modules/4.10.0+/build/vmlinux)

The stack trace recorded by perf will then show the bpf_prog_8227addf251b7543() symbol as part of the call trace, meaning that the BPF program with the tag 8227addf251b7543 was related to the kfree_skb event, and such program was attached to netdevice em1 on the ingress hook as shown by tc.


The Linux kernel provides various tracepoints around BPF and XDP which can be used for additional introspection, for example, to trace interactions of user space programs with the bpf system call.

Tracepoints for BPF:

# perf list | grep bpf:
bpf:bpf_map_create                                 [Tracepoint event]
bpf:bpf_map_delete_elem                            [Tracepoint event]
bpf:bpf_map_lookup_elem                            [Tracepoint event]
bpf:bpf_map_next_key                               [Tracepoint event]
bpf:bpf_map_update_elem                            [Tracepoint event]
bpf:bpf_obj_get_map                                [Tracepoint event]
bpf:bpf_obj_get_prog                               [Tracepoint event]
bpf:bpf_obj_pin_map                                [Tracepoint event]
bpf:bpf_obj_pin_prog                               [Tracepoint event]
bpf:bpf_prog_get_type                              [Tracepoint event]
bpf:bpf_prog_load                                  [Tracepoint event]
bpf:bpf_prog_put_rcu                               [Tracepoint event]

Example usage with perf (alternatively to sleep example used here, a specific application like tc could be used here instead, of course):

# perf record -a -e bpf:* sleep 10
# perf script
sock_example  6197 [005]   283.980322:      bpf:bpf_map_create: map type=ARRAY ufd=4 key=4 val=8 max=256 flags=0
sock_example  6197 [005]   283.980721:       bpf:bpf_prog_load: prog=a5ea8fa30ea6849c type=SOCKET_FILTER ufd=5
sock_example  6197 [005]   283.988423:   bpf:bpf_prog_get_type: prog=a5ea8fa30ea6849c type=SOCKET_FILTER
sock_example  6197 [005]   283.988443: bpf:bpf_map_lookup_elem: map type=ARRAY ufd=4 key=[06 00 00 00] val=[00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00]
sock_example  6197 [005]   288.990868: bpf:bpf_map_lookup_elem: map type=ARRAY ufd=4 key=[01 00 00 00] val=[14 00 00 00 00 00 00 00]
     swapper     0 [005]   289.338243:    bpf:bpf_prog_put_rcu: prog=a5ea8fa30ea6849c type=SOCKET_FILTER

For the BPF programs, their individual program tag is displayed.

For debugging, XDP also has a tracepoint that is triggered when exceptions are raised:

# perf list | grep xdp:
xdp:xdp_exception                                  [Tracepoint event]

Exceptions are triggered in the following scenarios:

  • The BPF program returned an invalid / unknown XDP action code.
  • The BPF program returned with XDP_ABORTED indicating a non-graceful exit.
  • The BPF program returned with XDP_TX, but there was an error on transmit, for example, due to the port not being up, due to the transmit ring being full, due to allocation failures, etc.

Both tracepoint classes can also be inspected with a BPF program itself attached to one or more tracepoints, collecting further information in a map or punting such events to a user space collector through the bpf_perf_event_output() helper, for example.


BPF programs and maps are memory accounted against RLIMIT_MEMLOCK similar to perf. The currently available size in unit of system pages which may be locked into memory can be inspected through ulimit -l. The setrlimit system call man page provides further details.

The default limit is usually insufficient to load more complex programs or larger BPF maps, so that the BPF system call will return with errno of EPERM. In such situations a workaround with ulimit -l unlimited or with a sufficiently large limit could be performed. The RLIMIT_MEMLOCK is mainly enforcing limits for unprivileged users. Depending on the setup, setting a higher limit for privileged users is often acceptable.

tc (traffic control)




Further Reading

Mentioned lists of projects, talks, papers, and further reading material are likely not complete. Thus, feel free to open pull requests to complete the list.

Projects using BPF

The following list includes some open source projects making use of BPF:

XDP Newbies

There are a couple of walk-through posts by David S. Miller to the xdp-newbies mailing list (http://vger.kernel.org/vger-lists.html#xdp-newbies), which explain various parts of XDP and BPF:

  1. May 2017,
    BPF Verifier Overview, David S. Miller, https://www.spinics.net/lists/xdp-newbies/msg00185.html
  1. May 2017,
    Contextually speaking..., David S. Miller, https://www.spinics.net/lists/xdp-newbies/msg00181.html
  1. May 2017,
    bpf.h and you..., David S. Miller, https://www.spinics.net/lists/xdp-newbies/msg00179.html
  1. Apr 2017,
    XDP example of the day, David S. Miller, https://www.spinics.net/lists/xdp-newbies/msg00009.html

BPF Newsletter

Alexander Alemayhu initiated a newsletter around BPF that appears roughly once per week covering latest developments around BPF in Linux kernel land and its surrounding ecosystem in user space:

  1. May 2017,
    BPF Updates 05, Alexander Alemayhu, https://www.cilium.io/blog/2017/5/31/bpf-updates-05
  1. May 2017,
    BPF Updates 04, Alexander Alemayhu, https://www.cilium.io/blog/2017/5/24/bpf-updates-04
  1. May 2017,
    BPF Updates 03, Alexander Alemayhu, https://www.cilium.io/blog/2017/5/17/bpf-updates-03
  1. May 2017,
    BPF Updates 02, Alexander Alemayhu, https://www.cilium.io/blog/2017/5/10/bpf-updates-02
  1. May 2017,
    BPF Updates 01, Alexander Alemayhu, https://www.cilium.io/blog/2017/5/2/bpf-updates-01-2017-05-02


There have been a number of technical podcasts partially covering BPF. Incomplete list:

  1. Feb 2017,
    Linux Networking Update from Netdev Conference, Thomas Graf, Software Gone Wild, Show 71, http://blog.ipspace.net/2017/02/linux-networking-update-from-netdev.html http://media.blubrry.com/ipspace/stream.ipspace.net/nuggets/podcast/Show_71-NetDev_Update.mp3
  1. Jan 2017,
    The IO Visor Project, Brenden Blanco, OVS Orbit, Episode 23, https://ovsorbit.org/#e23 https://ovsorbit.org/episode-23.mp3
  1. Oct 2016,
    Fast Linux Packet Forwarding, Thomas Graf, Software Gone Wild, Show 64, http://blog.ipspace.net/2016/10/fast-linux-packet-forwarding-with.html http://media.blubrry.com/ipspace/stream.ipspace.net/nuggets/podcast/Show_64-Cilium_with_Thomas_Graf.mp3
  1. Aug 2016,
    P4 on the Edge, John Fastabend, OVS Orbit, Episode 11, https://ovsorbit.org/#e11 https://ovsorbit.org/episode-11.mp3
  1. May 2016,
    Cilium, Thomas Graf, OVS Orbit, Episode 4, https://ovsorbit.org/#e4 https://ovsorbit.benpfaff.org/episode-4.mp3

Blog posts

The following (incomplete) list includes blog posts around BPF, XDP and related projects:

  1. May 2017,
    An entertaining eBPF XDP adventure, Suchakra Sharma, https://suchakra.wordpress.com/2017/05/23/an-entertaining-ebpf-xdp-adventure/
  1. May 2017,
    eBPF, part 2: Syscall and Map Types, Ferris Ellis, https://ferrisellis.com/posts/ebpf_syscall_and_maps/
  1. May 2017,
    Monitoring the Control Plane, Gary Berger, http://firstclassfunc.com/2017/05/monitoring-the-control-plane/
  1. Apr 2017,
    USENIX/LISA 2016 Linux bcc/BPF Tools, Brendan Gregg, http://www.brendangregg.com/blog/2017-04-29/usenix-lisa-2016-bcc-bpf-tools.html
  1. Apr 2017,
    Liveblog: Cilium for Network and Application Security with BPF and XDP, Scott Lowe, http://blog.scottlowe.org//2017/04/18/black-belt-cilium/
  1. Apr 2017,
    eBPF, part 1: Past, Present, and Future, Ferris Ellis, https://ferrisellis.com/posts/ebpf_past_present_future/
  1. Mar 2017,
    Analyzing KVM Hypercalls with eBPF Tracing, Suchakra Sharma, https://suchakra.wordpress.com/2017/03/31/analyzing-kvm-hypercalls-with-ebpf-tracing/
  1. Jan 2017,
    Golang bcc/BPF Function Tracing, Brendan Gregg, http://www.brendangregg.com/blog/2017-01-31/golang-bcc-bpf-function-tracing.html
  1. Dec 2016,
    Give me 15 minutes and I’ll change your view of Linux tracing, Brendan Gregg, http://www.brendangregg.com/blog/2016-12-27/linux-tracing-in-15-minutes.html
  1. Nov 2016,
    Cilium: Networking and security for containers with BPF and XDP, Daniel Borkmann, https://opensource.googleblog.com/2016/11/cilium-networking-and-security.html
  1. Nov 2016,
    Linux bcc/BPF tcplife: TCP Lifespans, Brendan Gregg, http://www.brendangregg.com/blog/2016-11-30/linux-bcc-tcplife.html
  1. Oct 2016,
    DTrace for Linux 2016, Brendan Gregg, http://www.brendangregg.com/blog/2016-10-27/dtrace-for-linux-2016.html
  1. Oct 2016,
    Linux 4.9’s Efficient BPF-based Profiler, Brendan Gregg, http://www.brendangregg.com/blog/2016-10-21/linux-efficient-profiler.html
  1. Oct 2016,
    Linux bcc tcptop, Brendan Gregg, http://www.brendangregg.com/blog/2016-10-15/linux-bcc-tcptop.html
  1. Oct 2016,
    Linux bcc/BPF Node.js USDT Tracing, Brendan Gregg, http://www.brendangregg.com/blog/2016-10-12/linux-bcc-nodejs-usdt.html
  1. Oct 2016,
    Linux bcc/BPF Run Queue (Scheduler) Latency, Brendan Gregg, http://www.brendangregg.com/blog/2016-10-08/linux-bcc-runqlat.html
  1. Oct 2016,
    Linux bcc ext4 Latency Tracing, Brendan Gregg, http://www.brendangregg.com/blog/2016-10-06/linux-bcc-ext4dist-ext4slower.html
  1. Oct 2016,
    Linux MySQL Slow Query Tracing with bcc/BPF, Brendan Gregg, http://www.brendangregg.com/blog/2016-10-04/linux-bcc-mysqld-qslower.html
  1. Oct 2016,
    Linux bcc Tracing Security Capabilities, Brendan Gregg, http://www.brendangregg.com/blog/2016-10-01/linux-bcc-security-capabilities.html
  1. Sep 2016,
    Suricata bypass feature, Eric Leblond, https://www.stamus-networks.com/2016/09/28/suricata-bypass-feature/
  1. Aug 2016,
    Introducing the p0f BPF compiler, Gilberto Bertin, https://blog.cloudflare.com/introducing-the-p0f-bpf-compiler/
  1. Jun 2016,
    Ubuntu Xenial bcc/BPF, Brendan Gregg, http://www.brendangregg.com/blog/2016-06-14/ubuntu-xenial-bcc-bpf.html
  1. Mar 2016,
    Linux BPF/bcc Road Ahead, March 2016, Brendan Gregg, http://www.brendangregg.com/blog/2016-03-28/linux-bpf-bcc-road-ahead-2016.html
  1. Mar 2016,
    Linux BPF Superpowers, Brendan Gregg, http://www.brendangregg.com/blog/2016-03-05/linux-bpf-superpowers.html
  1. Feb 2016,
    Linux eBPF/bcc uprobes, Brendan Gregg, http://www.brendangregg.com/blog/2016-02-08/linux-ebpf-bcc-uprobes.html
  1. Feb 2016,
    Who is waking the waker? (Linux chain graph prototype), Brendan Gregg, http://www.brendangregg.com/blog/2016-02-05/ebpf-chaingraph-prototype.html
  1. Feb 2016,
    Linux Wakeup and Off-Wake Profiling, Brendan Gregg, http://www.brendangregg.com/blog/2016-02-01/linux-wakeup-offwake-profiling.html
  1. Jan 2016,
    Linux eBPF Off-CPU Flame Graph, Brendan Gregg, http://www.brendangregg.com/blog/2016-01-20/ebpf-offcpu-flame-graph.html
  1. Jan 2016,
    Linux eBPF Stack Trace Hack, Brendan Gregg, http://www.brendangregg.com/blog/2016-01-18/ebpf-stack-trace-hack.html
  1. Sep 2015,
    Linux Networking, Tracing and IO Visor, a New Systems Performance Tool for a Distributed World, Suchakra Sharma, https://thenewstack.io/comparing-dtrace-iovisor-new-systems-performance-platform-advance-linux-networking-virtualization/
  1. Aug 2015,
    BPF Internals - II, Suchakra Sharma, https://suchakra.wordpress.com/2015/08/12/bpf-internals-ii/
  1. May 2015,
    eBPF: One Small Step, Brendan Gregg, http://www.brendangregg.com/blog/2015-05-15/ebpf-one-small-step.html
  1. May 2015,
    BPF Internals - I, Suchakra Sharma, https://suchakra.wordpress.com/2015/05/18/bpf-internals-i/
  1. Jul 2014,
    Introducing the BPF Tools, Marek Majkowski, https://blog.cloudflare.com/introducing-the-bpf-tools/
  1. May 2014,
    BPF - the forgotten bytecode, Marek Majkowski, https://blog.cloudflare.com/bpf-the-forgotten-bytecode/


The following (incomplete) list includes talks and conference papers related to BPF and XDP:

  1. May 2017,
    PyCon 2017, Portland, Executing python functions in the linux kernel by transpiling to bpf, Alex Gartrell, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CpqMroMBGP4
  1. May 2017,
    gluecon 2017, Denver, Cilium + BPF: Least Privilege Security on API Call Level for Microservices, Dan Wendlandt, http://gluecon.com/#agenda
  1. May 2017,
    Lund Linux Con, Lund, XDP - eXpress Data Path, Jesper Dangaard Brouer, http://people.netfilter.org/hawk/presentations/LLC2017/XDP_DDoS_protecting_LLC2017.pdf
  1. May 2017,
    Polytechnique Montreal, Trace Aggregation and Collection with eBPF, Suchakra Sharma, http://step.polymtl.ca/~suchakra/eBPF-5May2017.pdf
  1. Apr 2017,
    DockerCon, Austin, Cilium - Network and Application Security with BPF and XDP, Thomas Graf, https://www.slideshare.net/ThomasGraf5/dockercon-2017-cilium-network-and-application-security-with-bpf-and-xdp
  1. Apr 2017,
    NetDev 2.1, Montreal, XDP Mythbusters, David S. Miller, https://www.netdevconf.org/2.1/slides/apr7/miller-XDP-MythBusters.pdf
  1. Apr 2017,
    NetDev 2.1, Montreal, Droplet: DDoS countermeasures powered by BPF + XDP, Huapeng Zhou, Doug Porter, Ryan Tierney, Nikita Shirokov, https://www.netdevconf.org/2.1/slides/apr6/zhou-netdev-xdp-2017.pdf
  1. Apr 2017,
    NetDev 2.1, Montreal, XDP in practice: integrating XDP in our DDoS mitigation pipeline, Gilberto Bertin, https://www.netdevconf.org/2.1/slides/apr6/bertin_Netdev-XDP.pdf
  1. Apr 2017,
    NetDev 2.1, Montreal, XDP for the Rest of Us, Andy Gospodarek, Jesper Dangaard Brouer, https://www.netdevconf.org/2.1/slides/apr7/gospodarek-Netdev2.1-XDP-for-the-Rest-of-Us_Final.pdf
  1. Mar 2017,
    SCALE15x, Pasadena, Linux 4.x Tracing: Performance Analysis with bcc/BPF, Brendan Gregg, https://www.slideshare.net/brendangregg/linux-4x-tracing-performance-analysis-with-bccbpf
  1. Mar 2017,
    XDP Inside and Out, David S. Miller, https://github.com/iovisor/bpf-docs/raw/master/XDP_Inside_and_Out.pdf
  1. Mar 2017,
    OpenSourceDays, Copenhagen, XDP - eXpress Data Path, Used for DDoS protection, Jesper Dangaard Brouer, https://github.com/iovisor/bpf-docs/raw/master/XDP_Inside_and_Out.pdf
  1. Mar 2017,
    source{d}, Infrastructure 2017, Madrid, High-performance Linux monitoring with eBPF, Alfonso Acosta, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k4jqTLtdrxQ
  1. Feb 2017,
    FOSDEM 2017, Brussels, Stateful packet processing with eBPF, an implementation of OpenState interface, Quentin Monnet, https://fosdem.org/2017/schedule/event/stateful_ebpf/
  1. Feb 2017,
    FOSDEM 2017, Brussels, eBPF and XDP walkthrough and recent updates, Daniel Borkmann, http://borkmann.ch/talks/2017_fosdem.pdf
  1. Feb 2017,
    FOSDEM 2017, Brussels, Cilium - BPF & XDP for containers, Thomas Graf, https://fosdem.org/2017/schedule/event/cilium/
  1. Jan 2017,
    linuxconf.au, Hobart, BPF: Tracing and more, Brendan Gregg, https://www.slideshare.net/brendangregg/bpf-tracing-and-more
  1. Dec 2016,
    USENIX LISA 2016, Boston, Linux 4.x Tracing Tools: Using BPF Superpowers, Brendan Gregg, https://www.slideshare.net/brendangregg/linux-4x-tracing-tools-using-bpf-superpowers
  1. Nov 2016,
    Linux Plumbers, Santa Fe, Cilium: Networking & Security for Containers with BPF & XDP, Thomas Graf, http://www.slideshare.net/ThomasGraf5/clium-container-networking-with-bpf-xdp
  1. Nov 2016,
    OVS Conference, Santa Clara, Offloading OVS Flow Processing using eBPF, William (Cheng-Chun) Tu, http://openvswitch.org/support/ovscon2016/7/1120-tu.pdf
  1. Oct 2016,
    One.com, Copenhagen, XDP - eXpress Data Path, Intro and future use-cases, Jesper Dangaard Brouer, http://people.netfilter.org/hawk/presentations/xdp2016/xdp_intro_and_use_cases_sep2016.pdf
  1. Oct 2016,
    Docker Distributed Systems Summit, Berlin, Cilium: Networking & Security for Containers with BPF & XDP, Thomas Graf, http://www.slideshare.net/Docker/cilium-bpf-xdp-for-containers-66969823
  1. Oct 2016,
    NetDev 1.2, Tokyo, Data center networking stack, Tom Herbert, http://netdevconf.org/1.2/session.html?tom-herbert
  1. Oct 2016,
    NetDev 1.2, Tokyo, Fast Programmable Networks & Encapsulated Protocols, David S. Miller, http://netdevconf.org/1.2/session.html?david-miller-keynote
  1. Oct 2016,
    NetDev 1.2, Tokyo, XDP workshop - Introduction, experience, and future development, Tom Herbert, http://netdevconf.org/1.2/session.html?herbert-xdp-workshop
  1. Oct 2016,
    NetDev1.2, Tokyo, The adventures of a Suricate in eBPF land, Eric Leblond, http://netdevconf.org/1.2/slides/oct6/10_suricata_ebpf.pdf
  1. Oct 2016,
    NetDev1.2, Tokyo, cls_bpf/eBPF updates since netdev 1.1, Daniel Borkmann, http://borkmann.ch/talks/2016_tcws.pdf
  1. Oct 2016,
    NetDev1.2, Tokyo, Advanced programmability and recent updates with tc’s cls_bpf, Daniel Borkmann, http://borkmann.ch/talks/2016_netdev2.pdf http://www.netdevconf.org/1.2/papers/borkmann.pdf
  1. Oct 2016,
    NetDev 1.2, Tokyo, eBPF/XDP hardware offload to SmartNICs, Jakub Kicinski, Nic Viljoen, http://netdevconf.org/1.2/papers/eBPF_HW_OFFLOAD.pdf
  1. Aug 2016,
    LinuxCon, Toronto, What Can BPF Do For You?, Brenden Blanco, https://events.linuxfoundation.org/sites/events/files/slides/iovisor-lc-bof-2016.pdf
  1. Aug 2016,
    LinuxCon, Toronto, Cilium - Fast IPv6 Container Networking with BPF and XDP, Thomas Graf, https://www.slideshare.net/ThomasGraf5/cilium-fast-ipv6-container-networking-with-bpf-and-xdp
  1. Aug 2016,
    P4, EBPF and Linux TC Offload, Dinan Gunawardena, Jakub Kicinski, https://de.slideshare.net/Open-NFP/p4-epbf-and-linux-tc-offload
  1. Jul 2016,
    Linux Meetup, Santa Clara, eXpress Data Path, Brenden Blanco, http://www.slideshare.net/IOVisor/express-data-path-linux-meetup-santa-clara-july-2016
  1. Jul 2016,
    Linux Meetup, Santa Clara, CETH for XDP, Yan Chan, Yunsong Lu, http://www.slideshare.net/IOVisor/ceth-for-xdp-linux-meetup-santa-clara-july-2016
  1. May 2016,
    P4 workshop, Stanford, P4 on the Edge, John Fastabend, https://schd.ws/hosted_files/2016p4workshop/1d/Intel%20Fastabend-P4%20on%20the%20Edge.pdf
  1. Mar 2016,
    Performance @Scale 2016, Menlo Park, Linux BPF Superpowers, Brendan Gregg, https://www.slideshare.net/brendangregg/linux-bpf-superpowers
  1. Mar 2016,
    eXpress Data Path, Tom Herbert, Alexei Starovoitov, https://github.com/iovisor/bpf-docs/raw/master/Express_Data_Path.pdf
  1. Feb 2016,
    NetDev1.1, Seville, On getting tc classifier fully programmable with cls_bpf, Daniel Borkmann, http://borkmann.ch/talks/2016_netdev.pdf http://www.netdevconf.org/1.1/proceedings/papers/On-getting-tc-classifier-fully-programmable-with-cls-bpf.pdf
  1. Jan 2016,
    FOSDEM 2016, Brussels, Linux tc and eBPF, Daniel Borkmann, http://borkmann.ch/talks/2016_fosdem.pdf
  1. Oct 2015,
    LinuxCon Europe, Dublin, eBPF on the Mainframe, Michael Holzheu, https://events.linuxfoundation.org/sites/events/files/slides/ebpf_on_the_mainframe_lcon_2015.pdf
  1. Aug 2015,
    Tracing Summit, Seattle, LLTng’s Trace Filtering and beyond (with some eBPF goodness, of course!), Suchakra Sharma, https://github.com/iovisor/bpf-docs/raw/master/ebpf_excerpt_20Aug2015.pdf
  1. Jun 2015,
    LinuxCon Japan, Tokyo, Exciting Developments in Linux Tracing, Elena Zannoni, https://events.linuxfoundation.org/sites/events/files/slides/tracing-linux-ezannoni-linuxcon-ja-2015_0.pdf
  1. Feb 2015,
    Collaboration Summit, Santa Rosa, BPF: In-kernel Virtual Machine, Alexei Starovoitov, https://events.linuxfoundation.org/sites/events/files/slides/bpf_collabsummit_2015feb20.pdf
  1. Feb 2015,
    NetDev 0.1, Ottawa, BPF: In-kernel Virtual Machine, Alexei Starovoitov, http://netdevconf.org/0.1/sessions/15.html
  1. Feb 2014,
    DevConf.cz, Brno, tc and cls_bpf: lightweight packet classifying with BPF, Daniel Borkmann, http://borkmann.ch/talks/2014_devconf.pdf

Further Documents